Tuesday, October 18, 2011

research critique on childhood pain managment

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Assessment and management of pain in children 1


Running headCRITIQUE ON ASSESSEMENT AND PAIN MANAGEMENT IN CHILDREN


Critique on assessment and management


Custom Essays on research critique on childhood pain managment

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Of pain in children


Assessment and management of pain in children


I. Eufemia Jacob, PhD, RN and Kathleen Puntillo, DNSc, RN; Pediatric Nursing May/June 1; A survey of nursing practice in the assessment and management of pain in children


A. Jacob, E. & Puntillo, K. (1). A survey of nursing practice in the assessment and management of pain in children. Pediatric Nursing Journal.


B. General Information


1. Jannetti Publications, Inc.


. Eufemia Jacob is an RN with a PhD, and is an Adjunct Assistant Professor at Samuel Merritt College in Oakland, California.


Kathleen Puntillo is an RN with a DNSc who is an Associate Professor at the University of California San Francisco in San Francisco, California.


. No, there was no funding received for the research.


4. Yes, the title clearly indicates the content.


5. No, the article is printed in MLA format.


6. Yes, but the abstract states that questionnaires were distributed to 60 nurses, but in reality the questionnaires were distributed to 480 nurses and 60 nurses returned them.


II. Clarity and Relevance of the Study Purpose


A. Children experiencing varieties of painful procedures while hospitalized and not receiving consistent analgesics prior to these procedures. Also, children’s pain levels not being assessed and managed properly during hospital stays. And the fact that nurses do not consistently use developmentally suitable tools


Assessment and management of pain in children


for assessing pain levels, and that nurses overall have not used their pain management strategies to the fullest extent in their practice of controlling pain.


B. To communicate nurses’ understanding of their practices in assessing and managing pain in children.


C. Yes, the purpose is clearly stated.


D. Yes, the study is very relevant to nursing in the fact that it may help nurses understand their practice of pain management more, or possibly even open their eyes to the fact that they need to learn to assess and manage pain in children a little bit better than they currently do.


III. Background of the Study


A. Literature Review


1. The literature review is somewhat logically organized and is mostly


referenced in dated order. Most of the literature review seems to be


objective. The review seems to determine what is known and unknown


about this subject. It also determines gaps, consistencies, and inconsis-


tencies within the study. The literature review has discovered some


unanswered questions about this subject of pain management, and has


discovered the need for a refinement of this study. The review also seemed to identify the strengths and weaknesses on this topic.


. Yes, I believe this literature review provided a very succinct critique of all


of the listed relevant studies.


Assessment and management of pain in children 4


. Some references seem relevant to prove the authors point, but others do


not. The most current studies the author referenced were from 16.


4. The major concepts the author of the literature review was trying to point


out, was the fact that most of the literature that has been previously avail-


able on pain management and assessment in children was outdated. And that most all of the previous literature available only addressed and “explored factors, such as beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes that affect nurses’ choices and decision making regarding pain in children” (Jacob and Puntillo, p.). As quoted by Jacob and Puntillo, p. “There were no studies found in the literature that surveyed the nurses’ perceptions of their practices in the assessment and management of pain in children. It is important for nurses to examine their assessment and management practices in order to determine whether their practice contributes to the under medication of pain in children, as well as to determine if their practice incorporates the latest advances and progress made in pain research. The purpose of this study was to describe nurses’ perceptions of their practices in the assessment and management of pain in children.”


5. Yes, I do believe that the rationale for the study is supported by the


Literature review.


6. Yes, references are appropriately cited.


B. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework


1. I believe that this study has a conceptual framework. It also seems to me


Assessment and management of pain in children 5


that this is a nursing framework in the fact that it has to do with an ongoing problem in pediatric nursing today. However, there really doesn’t seem to be a model. Unless it is the nurse in relation to the clients in relation to assessment and management of pain techniques.


. I believe this study has a conceptual framework, not a theoretical one. I


dont believe that this takes away from the usefulness or significance of this research in any way.


. I think that this framework is easily linked to the problem since it is


conceptual in nature. Although, with this framework being conceptual it actually means that this is a loosely related collection of concepts that really have not yet been tested. I believe that if the framework for this research was theoretical it would seem more forced to be met with the problem.


4. Yes, the concepts are adequately defined in the fact that this study has


only concepts that can be measured and turned into numbers. The surveys were distributed and collected and in turn placed in a statistical format for the purpose of research.


5. Yes, the relationships among concepts in this article seem to be clearly identified. This approach seems to yield results that are clearly defined and easily interpreted.


C. Problem Statement/Research Variables/Hypothesis


1. The specific research question is Do nurses examine their assessment


Assessment and management of pain in children 6


and pain management practices in order to determine whether their


practice incorporates the latest advances and progresses made in pain


research today?


. The dependent variable in this study is pain. The independent variables are the pharmacologic interventions, and the non-pharmocologic interventions such as distraction techniques, relaxation techniques, music, and guided imagery. Two other independent variables would be how accurately a nurse identifies a child’s pain, and the reaction of a parent to the child’s pain. The change of the independent variables may have a profound effect on the dependent. So, if any of the independent variables are changed, the question is How does it effect the dependent one? This studies independent and dependent variables were operationally defined by the questionnaire that was distributed to the nurses. The questionnnarie contained checklists and open-ended questions for the nurses to answer based methods used for pain management, the type of paitnet the nurses usually work with, and the nurses perceptions of factors that affect their management and assessement of pain in children. This study does not present a formal hypothesis, however, if we change the nurses perception and assessement techniques used to identify a child’s pain, the outcome of pain management will be improved. Yes, this hypothesis relates to the problem and the literature research. The research relates to the problem because the nurses were given a questionnaire to identify things, (1) identifiying painful procdures performed on children, () doing a checklist of the most frequesntly used medications for these painful producures, () the nurses actual methods used for assessment of pain in children such as facial expression, parental input, verbal expressions, physiological changes, etc. The hypothesis, problem, and literature research all come full circle since they are all interrelated.











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