Sunday, January 15, 2012

The Malaysian Automotive Industry Post-AFTA

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1.0 Introduction


The automobile industry in Malaysia is closely linked to the history of Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional Berhad (PROTON). It is the national car project whose brainchild was none other than the Prime Minister Dr Mahathir himself. Prior to the incorporation of PROTON on 7 May 18, the industry comprises mainly of assemblers of foreign cars such as Tan Chong Motors, the assembler for completely knock down (CKD) Nissan cars and Kah Motors, the assembler for CKD Honda cars.


Since the inception of PROTON and subsequently PERODUA, the country second national car company, Malaysia maintains several measures to protect its local automobile industry which includes a host of other automotive components, spare parts and accessories vendors supporting the national cars by imposing one of the highest tax duties on automobiles and motorcycles in South East Asia and probably the world plus a list of other non-tariff barriers. The measures include duties on passenger car which ranges from 140% to 00% (depending on capacity), a 10% sales tax, a graduated excise tax which ranges from 5% to 65% (with the national car receiving a 50% reduction in the tax), import quotas on foreign cars, non transparent licensing system that requires an “approved permit” on imported autos and local content requirements which ranges from 40% to 65% for autos produced in Malaysia by foreign companies.


As at November 00, Proton command about 5.4%, while the second national car company PERODUA about 1.4% of the passenger car market in Malaysia.. Today, Proton and Perodua combined make up more than 85% of the passenger car market in Malaysia. (New Sunday Times - Cars, 1 Jan 00, p.0)


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However, all these are about to change when the Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA) agreement comes into effect beginning 00. However, Malaysia has successfully deferred the implementation of the agreement involving the automobile industry to 005. The reason given was that the local manufacturers needed time to recover from the recent economic downturn but more specifically it is for the two national car companies, Proton and Perodua to prepare themselves for the eventual removal of the protective measures which hitherto shielded them from the harsh and competitively global automobile industry.


1.1 Research Problem


This assignment intends to discuss the factors and implications of AFTA on the automobile industry in Malaysia and how the industry should prepare itself for the eventual trade liberalization in 005.


1. Research Question


This assignment will evaluate as to whether the automobile industry in Malaysia is ready for the implementation of AFTA regulations.


.0 Methodology


This assignment is completed using secondary data from the various media, news publications, internet sources and research information of research houses.


.0 Findings


.1 What is AFTA?


AFTA is a form regional integration effort by ASEAN member countries which signed an agreement in 1 to enhance economic cooperation among themselves. The agreement contains calls for reduction of inter-regional tariffs on all manufactured items including capital goods, processed agricultural products and the removal of all non-tariff barriers over a 15 year period beginning in 1.


(ASEAN Homepage).


The agreement is implemented using Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT). Under the scheme, tariffs on almost all products traded by ASEAN member countries will be down to 0-5 per cent and all non-tariff barriers will be completely remove for trade by ASEAN countries by 00. To date, more than 1000 products have been included in this scheme. (ibid)


The primary objective of AFTA is to enhance ASEAN’s position as competitive production base both for the region by way of promoting intra-ASEAN trade and industrial linkages, specialization and economies of scale as well as being an efficient and competitive base for investments. It is also seen as a clear indication of the seriousness of ASEAN in achieving a free trade area in the region and part of ASEAN contribution to the general trend towards global trade liberalization. (Nagappan, V. 001).


. AFTA and the Automobile Industry


The ASEAN automobile market is an attractive one for a few reasons. Firstly, the regional population of about 50 million with rising purchasing powers and hunger for cars provide an extremely fertile market for car manufacturers. ASEAN vehicle sales are expected to hit 1.5 million units in 00 according to Ford Motor and the integrated sales of the region could be the fifth largest market in the world by 005. The attractiveness of the market is driving the various automobile giants such as Toyota, Ford Motors and Daimler Chrysler to invest heavily in the region particularly Thailand. (Nagappan, V. 001).


In line with AFTA objective to enhance the region’s position as a competitive production base, all components and parts needed by the car industry, from tyres to engines are included in the CEPT list. CKD and CBU cars are also included in this scheme. Non trade barriers such as custom tax and tariffs will also be included as soon as the market is open.


Under AFTA, tariffs for assembled cars and components will be gradually reduced to less than 5 percent by the year 00. But this was deferred to 005 following request by Malaysia. Other non tariff barriers and protection for local car manufacturers would also be abolished by year 005.


AFTA ultimate objective for the automobile sector is none other than to drive greater regional manufacturing integration and cost competitiveness among ASEAN countries. It also hope to encourage greater technology transfer to this region so that local companies can benefit by producing parts and components that will be marketable within the ASEAN region.


. The Automobile Industry in Malaysia


Among all the ASEAN countries, Malaysia by far has the largest automobile market followed by Indonesia and Thailand. See Table 1 below. Motor vehicle sales in Malaysia both (passenger and commercial) hit 407, units up to November 00. (New Sunday Times � Cars, 1 jan 00, p.0).





Table 1 Total Vehicle Sales Volume by Country (Passenger & Commercial)





Source Asian Cases on Supply Chain Management for SMEs, 00, p.7


Prior to 180, the automotive industry in Malaysia was confined to contract assembly where franchise holders purchased CKD units directly from its principal manufacturers. All automotive parts came in complete CKD and local parts utilization was minimal. At the same time, a substantial number of vehicles were also brought in through the CBU shipment method. Contract assembly vehicles in the form of CKD and CBU imports accounted for 70 per cent and 0 per cent respectively of the total automotive industry volume. (APO, 00, p.8).


With the inception of Proton in 18, the Malaysian automotive industry scenario was completely changed. The government heavy support and intervention as part of national interest coupled with heavy capital investment aided and protected the national vehicle manufacturer leading them to dominate the market. The government in its effort to ensure the success of the national car project adopted various measures to support the local car industry including start up capital, loan facilities and training to encourage the beginning of the automotive parts and component industry in Malaysia.


The most significant measure instituted by the government to protect the national car projects is the various tariff barriers. Malaysia imposes import duties and sales tax for the various categories of cars. See Table below.


TABLE Malaysia Tax Structure on Imported Cars


A. PASSENGER CARS (INCLUDING STATIONWAGONS)


B. 4X4 VEHICLES (EXCLUDING MODELS LIKE THE SUBARU IMPREZA WHICH ARE CONSIDERED PASSENGER CARS)


C. OTHERS (VANS, MPVS, ETC)


PASSENGER CARS (PETROL ENGINES)


Import Duty-


Up to 17 cc 140% of CIF (Cost, Insurance & Freight)


1800 cc - 1 cc 170% of CIF


000 cc - 4 cc 00% of CIF


500 cc - cc 50% of CIF


000 cc and above 00% of CIF


- Import Duty for passenger cars with diesel engines is set at a flat rate of 10% of CIF.


- Sales Tax is calculated based on 10% of (CIF + Import Duty charged)


4X4 VEHICLES & OTHERS


Import Duty-


Up to 17 cc 60% of CIF


1800 - 1 cc 80% of CIF


000 - 4 cc 150% of CIF


500 cc - cc 180% of CIF


000 cc and above 00% of CIF


- Sales Tax is calculated based on 10% of (CIF + Import Duty charged)


Source AAM





The prohibitive tax structure has sheltered the two national car companies well ever since their inception. Today, both Proton and Perodua command more than 85% of the passenger car market in Malaysia. Table below illustrates Proton car sales over the years.


TABLE Proton Cars Sales Over the Years





Source Asian Cases on Supply Chain Management for SMEs, 00, p.6 &


New Sunday Times � Cars, 1 Jan 00, p.0


..1 Components of the Malaysian Automobile Industry


The Malaysian automobile industry comprises of the following components. They are firstly the national car manufacturers namely Proton, Perodua and Inokom. Secondly, the foreign assemblers such as Tan Chong Motors (for Nissan), Kah Motors (for Hyundai), DRB-Oriental (for Honda), Daimler-Chrysler (for Mercedes Benz) and UMW (for Toyota). Thirdly, the local parallel importers such as Naza Motors for the various range of luxurious CBU vehicles.


Further down the chain, there is also the second hand car dealers segment whose role has been critical in sustaining the dynamics of the automobile industry by providing the avenue for vehicles to be resold as well as establishing the market resale pricing of used vehicles. And last but not least the automotive components manufacturers and vendors. Currently, there are about 814 companies dealing with automobiles, parts and accessories in Malaysia, out of which 4 are Proton vendors and 16 Perodua’s. (NST - Business Times, 8 May 00, P.04).


The vendors groups include; Malaysian Automotive Components Part Manufacturers (MACPMA), Proton Vendors Association (PPP), Perodua Vendors Club (KVP) and Toyota Suppliers Club (TSC). These groups have recently agreed and form the Malaysian Parts Alliance Group (MAPAG) as a platform to discuss common issues affecting the automotive industry as well as to consider development of the automotive components parts industry.


.. Malaysian Automobile Industry - Market Share/Segment Analysis


The market volume in the Malaysian automotive industry is dominated by the passenger car category, followed by the 4WD and lastly the commercial vehicles. The 00 figures have yet to be finalized but based on Malaysian Automotive Association (MAA) forecast, the industry should hit 44,000 units for 00 since up to November 00, total sales have already touched 407, units. (DBS Vickers Securities Report, Oct 00). See Table 5 below on Malaysia vehicle sales according to segment.


Table 4 Malaysia Vehicle Sales According to Segment


Passenger (units) y-o-y growth (%) 4WD (units) y-o-y growth (%) Commercial (units) y-o-y growth (%) TOTAL (units) y-o-y growth (%)


16 75,6 .5 1,655 45. 6,46 46. 64,784 7.6


17 07,06 11.7 6,57 5. 70,0 1.1 404,706 10.


18 17,61 -55. 8,51 -68.0 17,641 -74. 16,851 -5.5


1 ,647 74.0 ,7 166.8 6,171 48.4 88,547 76.1


000 8,10 17.7 7,18 0. ,75 .0 4,17 18.


001 7,515 10.1 1,6 14.6 7,6 11.5 6,44 15.5


00 70,0 1.0 1,611 1.0 40,6 8.0 44,4 11.6


Source Malaysian Automotive Association


Adapted from DBS Vickers Securities Report, Oct 00.








The two national cars, Proton and Perodua dominated the passenger car segment holding a combined 0.8 per cent market share followed by a distant Toyota and Nissan at .7 per cent and 1. per cent respectively. See Table 6 below on passenger car sales by manufacturers.


Table 5 Passenger Car Sales by Manufacturers


Manufacturers 1 000 001 00 Mkt Share in 00


Proton 155,70 178,60 186,00 0,48 5.4%


Perodua 66,4 8,484 85000 106,84 1.4%


Toyota 4,556 4,44 5,00 ,05 .7%


Nissan ,70 , 4,0 6,4 1.%


Kia NA NA NA 5,45 1.6%


Honda 4,606 4,550 5,70 ,766 0.8%


Mercedes 1,16 ,47 ,450 ,76 0.8%


BMW 1,1 ,085 ,500 ,045 0.6%


Volvo NA NA NA 1,0 0.%


Others ,14 ,414 6,850 1,0 0.5%


Total Sales ,647 8,10 8,50 40,87 100%


Source Asian Cases on Supply Chain Management for SMEs, 00 &


New Sunday Times � Cars, 1 Jan 00, p.0.


The annual production volume of Proton and Perodua is about 00,000 and 85,000 units respectively with anticipation of increase capacity in the near future when their new plant in Tanjung Malim comes on stream. This capacity is adequate for the current domestic demand. However, when the market opens up in 005, consumers may have more option with competitors’ model thus dampening demand for Proton and Perodua cars.





In the commercial vehicles segment, the national brand managed only a 8 per cent market share against 7 per cent share for the non-national makers.According to the industry sources, image and branding problem coupled with the fact that the national cars have limited range in terms of engine capacity contributed to its lower position vis-à-vis the other makes. See Table 6 on Commercial Vehicle Sales by Manufacturers.


Table 6 Commercial Vehicle Sales by Manufacturers





#1 � Major product line MPV/Van and 4WD


# � Major product line Trucks


Source Asian Cases on Supply Chain Management for SMEs


.. AFTA and Its Impact on Components of Malaysian Automobile Industry


By 005, Malaysia will have no choice but to come to terms with AFTA with regard to the automotive industry. Having successfully delayed the implementation of the agreement on the automobile sector by two years from 00 to 005, Malaysia had hope to find a breather to help the two national car companies get themselves ready for tariff removal.


With the ultimate reduction of tariff to between 0-5 per cent in 005, every component of the Malaysian automobile industry will be impacted be it significantly or otherwise. The national car companies, that is Proton and Perodua will be impacted most significantly. With the playing field leveled in 005, whereby the difference between prices of foreign cars and the national cars narrowed, the Malaysian consumers will then have better options before them in terms of choices. Judging from current perception of the national cars which is generally perceived as inferior and low in quality, the narrowed down difference in pricing between the national cars and foreign ones will most definitely tip consumers towards foreign cars thereby dampening the overall demand for the national cars.


The removal of tariffs will benefit the foreign assemblers in Malaysia as well as the parallel importers in more ways than one. Firstly, foreign cars will be cheaper than it is now thus ensuring them of a bigger market share. Secondly, the uniformed low duties applied across ASEAN will provide them with a much larger regional market if they can get their rationalization of production right. Thirdly, as a result of higher volume production, they will benefit from the economies of scale in production. (Momin, Z., Watganai, H. & Singh, J. 00).


The impact of AFTA on used car dealers is minimal and confine to a one time effect. Just prior to 005 and in anticipation of a general reduction in prices of vehicles, used car dealers should be reducing their holding of vehicles. Any holding of vehicles will have to be on much lower pricing so that they will not end up in a position where new cars prices are lower than their holding price. The dynamics of used car pricing will automatically work itself out as soon as AFTA comes into implementation.


The impact on components and parts manufacturers on the other hand will be in the area of costing. Malaysia’s components and parts manufacturers revolve around and dependent significantly on the two national car companies. They are largely small and medium size local suppliers with a few larger corporations. Malaysia’s total vehicle volume of about 400,000 units per year as seen in Table 1 earlier has not been able to allow these suppliers to operate with the economies of scale. Much of the process in their manufacturing is still labor intensive and have yet to achieve full automation to enable them achieve the desired quality and benefits of scale manufacturing. With the removal of tariffs, these manufacturers are going to struggle in competing with their counterparts in Thailand where automotive giants have already put in place the various facilities in producing the desired parts at very competitive pricing and ready to flood the ASEAN market. (Sadoi, Y, 000).


4.0 Analysis


The greatest challenge confronting the Malaysia today is the state of readiness of its automobile industry particularly the two national car manufacturers in facing AFTA. Debate is still on going whether the some of the measures taken by Proton and Perodua as well as the other assemblers would be effective in confronting the AFTA come January 005. An analysis of what the national carmakers, the foreign assemblers and the components and parts manufacturers are embarking on will provide some insights into their state of preparedness.


4.1 Proton Preparation for AFTA


The eventual removal of protective tariff for the automotive industry in Malaysia will impact Proton foremost since with the protection its commands the Malaysian domestic car market almost monopolistically. AFTA has always been a “torn in its flesh” and Proton has never ceased to regularly update the Malaysian public on some of its strategies to deal with the issue.


Proton in coming up with its strategies understands its own constraints in the following (Asian Cases on Supply Chain Management for SMEs, 00);


4.1.1 In the automotive industry, Proton is still at an infant stage as compared to the other world players such as General Motors, Ford and Toyota.


4.1. Its high manufacturing costs arising from the huge capital investment it made to start up the industry.


4.1. Substantial local parts transfer cost to the local vendors who are still bearing the technical technology transfer royalty, parts development cost and foreign exchange exposure arising from imports of main components from principal manufacturers abroad. In many cases, Proton needs to subsidize the local parts cost.


4.1.4 High exposure to foreign exchange volatility as some of the main components are imported from overseas principal manufacturers.


4.1.5 Limited models coupled with low quality of its cars and parts as compared with foreign cars.


By understanding where its weaknesses lie, Proton hopes to be able to develop strategies that will keep it competitive in spite of the challenges. The most basic of all Proton strategies is the quest to manufacture its own car and not depend on borrowed technology which cost tremendous amount of royalty.


It was a moment of triumph and vindication for Proton when it launched its Waja model whose platform is entirely its own, designed and made by Malaysians. It was a major milestone for the carmaker whose models hitherto have been based on Mitsubishi and Citroen platforms. It also means that Proton has moved up the value chain and has made headway towards independence. (Ranawana, A, 000).


It is also a step towards being competitive as it no longer has to pay huge amount of royalty for using foreign marquees’ platforms.


Come 004, Proton will achieve another milestone when its endeavor to produce its own engine becomes reality. Proton with the help of Lotus Engineering, United Kingdom, a business, which it owns will start to use the new “Campro” engine for all its models beginning 004. According to Proton CEO, with its own platform and engine, the national car is anticipated to have tremendous amount of savings since all the components will be manufactured locally. These cost savings will translate to cheaper prices and therefore enhance its competitiveness in the face of AFTA. (Soon, T., the edgedaily, 7 Jul 00).


4. Other Components of Automobile Industry and their Preparation for AFTA


4..1 The Foreign Car Assemblers


While Proton jitters over the opening up of the automobile market in 005, the foreign car assemblers on the hand are enthusiastically looking forward to the day because the removal of tariffs will enable them compete much more effectively and thus capturing a bigger portion of the market share than they currently do.


The industry has been seeing the trend of foreign car makers or principal owners taking control over their local operations. Honda Motor of Japan is now in control of the local venture by increasing its stake to 51 per cent from 4 per cent in Honda Malaysia with DRB-Hicom and Oriental Holdings having the smaller stake. They have expanded their presence in the country with additional investment in manufacturing capacity for the introduction of new models in the spanking new plant in Malacca. (C.M, Siow, the edgedaily, 7 Dec 00).


In a similar move, German luxury carmaker Daimler Chrysler has taken over the entire Malaysian wholesale operations from Cycle and Carriage Bintang Berhad by controlling 51 per cent of the ownership. Also Kah Motors together with its assembling company Oriental Assemblers, the former franchise holder for Honda vehicles is now the sole assembler for Hyundai vehicles in Malaysia. (Ibid)


The current price war among the foreign car makers in Malaysia is an indication of what competitiveness mean in the automobile industry when tariff barriers eventually fall in 005. Consumers are brimming with excitement as Honda, Toyota and the Korean car makers Kia and Hyundai are slogging it out by lowering the prices of their new launches never before seen in the history of the industry. (L.H, Yap, Starbiz, 0 Jun 00, p.01).


4.. The Components and Parts Manufacturers


This is perhaps the sector which is least prepared to face AFTA and unless it is able to very quickly overcome its constraints in a very short time, it will be steamrolled over by competition. Their constraints are as follows


4...1 Almost all local components and parts manufacturers are small and medium size in nature with turnover of less than RM15m per company per annum. Their limited financial resources impede their expansion.


4... They lack expertise and equipment facilities in the area of research and design. The have been too dependent on Proton for providing designs, drawings and specifications of parts for their production. Furthermore, they are in no financial position to venture into R&D.


4... Limitation of the domestic market production resulted in them not being able to achieve the economies of scale in production thus rendering them uncompetitive in terms of pricing.


According to Yuri Sadoi (00), one of the major problems confronting the auto parts industry in Malaysia is the lack of skilled workers and technicians. This is critical as auto parts production needs a wide range of production techniques which in turn require many types and level of skilled workers. According to him, the shortage can be attributed to four factors namely insufficient government support, employers’ lukewarm attitudes, unfavourable skill environment and weak individual interest.


As much as the government has tried to rectify the situation such as emphasizing skill formation by increasing the number of technical schools, skill certification program and giving tax incentive for training of employees, the result has not been forthcoming because it takes time to go through the learning curve and time is not on its side since 005 is just a corner away.


5.0 Conclusion


Although all components of the Malaysian automobile industry are working on readying themselves in anticipation of AFTA, clearly some are more ready than others. In the case of Proton and Perodua, while they have succeeded in having their own platform and engine thus making them genuine manufacturer in the real sense, the question still remain as to whether that itself is good enough to enable them compete effectively with the other automobile giants. The critical factor is still cost and quality of its product. Until and unless they get this right on time, they will not be ready for AFTA.


As for the other components of the industry, the most prepared and ready for AFTA appears to be the foreign car manufacturers. They have systematically rationalized their production specialization to take advantage of the comparative advantage of the individual countries in ASEAN so as to achieve the economies of scale when AFTA beckons.(Momin, Z.A, 00).


The least prepared are the components and parts manufacturers simply because they have been overly protected for far too long resulting in them lying too far from the level of international competitiveness.


6.0 Recommendation


From the analysis above, it is clear that the components of the automobile industry which will be most affected by AFTA will be the national cars and its related components and parts vendors. Some have argued that how they should cope with the eventual liberalization cannot be viewed strictly from a commercial perspective simply because Proton and Perodua are not car companies per se but a centre piece of government policy. The project is a social engineering process with a socio-political role of creating employment, promoting techno-education and above all instilling the sense of national identity and pride.(Bando, T, 000).


Although the above may not be tenable anymore the national cars project has come too far to back out now.


The following are some of the strategies Proton can take to face the challenges of AFTA. The strategies will indirectly involve the components and parts manufacturers since the majority of them revolve around the national car industry.


6.1 Build up the Brand Image


Proton in particular must build up its brand image further not only within the country but worldwide by being independent and designing its own models. Its current image as an obsolete Mitsubishi-model carmaker does not serve the company well in the long term. However, the successful designing of its own platform and the ‘campro’ engine with the help of Lotus may prove to be the turning point and Proton must ride on this to its advantage.


6. Develop more New Models at Faster Rate


Proton has not been able to do this currently because it has to depend on the principal manufacturer that is Mitsubishi. But with its own platform and engine it can. The vehicle platform that Proton designed and being used in the Waja series can also be adapted to fit the various market segments. Together with its own engine, Proton can be very versatile in terms of models and speed of change.


6. Keep Product Cost Down


Proton must continue to bring production cost down by firstly adopting both line and contract assembly manufacturing. This is to enable its plant manufactures its own as well as contract assembles for others. This flexibility will enable them achieve the volume and therefore enjoy the economies of scale in the areas of plant utilization thus lowering fixed costs per unit.


Secondly, to adopt “open door” policy for parts sourcing. The current policy of single-source channel sourcing must be replaced by multi-source channel to ensure that only vendors with the best price and quality will be accepted regardless who they are.


6.4 Weeding out Weak Part Vendors


The existing inefficient components and parts vendors must be weeded out to ensure that only the best and the most productive are ready to compete in the liberalized market. It will also ensure that the new breed of Proton cars attain the desired quality needed to compete when AFTA opens. Component vendors need to start looking at the comparative advantage within ASEAN in the areas of raw material cost, special labour skill and strong supporting industries and accordingly reallocate their product portfolios within these countries to capture a higher regional volume thus improving utilization level and reduce cost. Essentially, achieving the economies of scale to reduce cost is the critical factor in the survival of components manufacturers.


6.5 Ride on Lotus Engineering Expertise


Lotus currently designs engines for 5 per cent of Europe’s vehicles. (Mellor, J, 00). Now that Proton owns the company, they must fully utilize Lotus expertise and image to shorten their R&D learning curve in automotive design and engineering. As engine cost make up almost 0 per cent of the cost a car, the strength in this aspect provided by Lotus will narrow the gap between Proton and its nearest rivals. In fact, Lotus is crucial to the ultimate competitiveness of Proton.


6.6 Capturing the World’s Islamic Market


Malaysia has been a model Islamic country in the eyes of the Islamic world. Proton with the assistance of the government must use this connection to aggressively penetrate the Islamic market which has a population of 1 billion Muslims. If Proton can come up with a decent car with good technology these markets will provide the carmaker with the necessary economies of scale needed to achieve optimum cost. Proton has already started making inroads into Iran, Turkey and discussions currently on going in North Africa. (Mellor, J, 00).


7.0 Limitations of Research


The above research is limited by word constraint impose on this assignment. It is also limited by the fragmented information on the industry as well as the lack of right information especially related to the components and parts industry.





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