Saturday, April 7, 2012

Enclosure

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The Enclosure of Common Land


Enclosure entailed the fencing of common land with the eventual intention of cultivation by individual owners. The process occurred on three ways. Around Moelfre and on Mynydd Mechell illegal, piece-meal enclosure by squatter-colonisers took place. In Heneglwys in 180 and Llanfair Mathafarn Eithaf in 1815 land was voluntarily enclosed. Most of the countys common land however was enclosed by parliamentary legislation, and the map shows places thus enclosed, together with the acreages and the relevant dates.


The largest enclosure involved the reclamation of Malltraeth Marsh, consisting of salt marsh inundated periodically by high tides and used occasionally for grazing. The long and detailed Acts of 1788 and 170 gave the commissioners powers to raise money for building embankments and drainage channels, but these were so costly that the work stopped until 180, when some friends of improvement met at Beaumaris. The Bill they drew up became an Act in 1811 and there was also another Act much later in 185. More money was collected and by June 181 the Embankment, or Cob, was completed. Unfortunately, in October, a high tide and storm broke a temporary dam, so that in places the Cob itself was threatened. Hundreds of men and carts were called in, and the damage was repaired. Part of the river Cefni was canalised and its commercial use was actually envisaged in the Act of 1788. The rivers original meanders still exist on the west side of the marsh.


In all, ,000 acres were reclaimed and enclosed, and the map illustrates the geometrical pattern of the allotments. Agriculturally, the scheme was relatively unsuccessful. Poor drainage conditions, due to the absence of a sufficient strong seaward gradient, hampered farming activities from the outset. Communications, however, were greatly improved. Newborough became more accessible and the work of Telford and Stephenson was greatly facilitated.


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The Act for enclosing land in Llandysilio and Llaneilian was passed in 1814. Much of the enclosed land in Llandysilio accomodated the new town of Menai Bridge. In Llaneilian 14 acres from mountain, marsh and turbary were enclosed. Fifty one allotments were made and one in the turbary was awarded to the poor. The field network created by the Llaneilian award is still evident, as the inset illustrates.


The 1815 Act for Newborough and Llangeinwen enclosed an area of salt marsh and sand dune. One hundred acres were allowed to the poor but as they could not pay their share of the costs the land was sold. The burgesses of Newborough were not compensated for the rabbit warren which had yielded them £ a year in rent. They now also had to pay for collecting marram grass and many had to be supported by the rates, which doubled in a few years.


In executing the enclosure acts, the commissioners created bridle paths, occupation roads and carriage roads. They also planned public quarries and wells. In the Llangefni award there was a public turbary as well as a public quarry, and at Rhos-y-gad a public pond and watering place.














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