Saturday, December 31, 2011

tech?

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University of Illinois researchers have fabricated tiny, three-dimensional fluidic networks that promise to reduce the size of biochips.


The researchers printed layers of organic material onto a moving platform to form a three-dimensional scaffold. They filled the scaffolding with epoxy that solidified at room temperature, then heated the structure to 50 degrees Celsius to melt and remove the scaffolding. The resulting channels were as small as 10 microns in diameter�about twice the size of a red blood cell.


The researchers built a structure that mixed tiny amounts of fluids. In very small amounts fluids are viscous and dont readily mix.


The researchers made a series of twists and turns by filling a network of channels with a photocurable resin and shining light to solidify the resin at certain points. The prototype mixed fluids by forcing them through the turns, which formed a square, spiral tower.


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The method could eventually produce networks containing hundreds of layers and interconnections, leading to more compact microfluidic devices like biomedical implants and sensors, according to the researchers.


The method could be used in commercial applications in five to ten years, according to the researchers. The work appeared in the March , 00 issue of Nature Materials.


Researchers working on chips that mix small amounts of liquids have more of a challenge than at first meets the eye. At the very small scale, blending liquids is more like kneeding dough than mixing cream into coffee.


Researchers from the New Jersey Institute of Technology have shown that it is possible to mix small amounts of liquids more quickly by pulsing the flow rates of the liquids through the channels in such a way that the pulse rates of the two liquids are out of phase.


The researchers demonstrated the method using a T channel intersection whose segments were 00 microns wide by 10 microns deep, or about twice the circumference of a human hair.


The out-of-phase pulsing caused the interface between the two liquids to stretch, fold and sweep through the liquids, causing them to mix after traveling about two millimeters down the channel, which took about one second.


The mixing method is appropriate for any lab-on-a-chip that uses mechanical pumps to control fluid flow, and could be used in practical devices within a few years, according to the researchers. The work appeared in the May 1, 00 issue of Lab on a Chip.





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Should there be separate schools for males & females?

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Final Essay.


Should there be separate schools for males & females?


There should not be separate schools for males and females. There are three main reasons why there should not be separate schools for male and female students. First, the students passing out from mixed schools are much more amenable and readily acceptable to the today’s society than the students passing out from single-sex schools. Second, it is much more economical to construct and manage mixed schools than to construct and manage single-sex schools. Third, quality and amount of subject knowledge of students passing out from a single-sex schools are less than the quality and amount of knowledge of students passing out from mixed schools, due to lack of overall competition among students in single-sex schools. For the reasons stated above, there should not be separate schools for males and females.


There should not be separate schools for males and females in today’s society because of the students passing out from mixed schools are much more amenable and readily acceptable to the society than the students passing out from single-sex schools. The final goal of an each individual is to serve the society at his best and live a peaceful life. In today’s complex-society everybody hates any discrimination, what so ever. In today’s offices, it is common to have employees in both sexes. Employees who have got their education in mixed schools will easily get familiarized with the work place environment. Quality of people skill is an important factor in today’s recruitment criterion. It is clearly seen that the quality of people skills in students from mixed schools is stronger than the quality of people skills in students from single-sex schools.


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Second, there should not be separate schools for males and females, because it is much more economical to construct and manage mixed schools than to construct and manage single-sex schools. A localized community can have one mixed school instead of two single-sex schools. There is a significant difference between the cost of construction & management of two single-sex schools and the cost of construction & management of mixed schools. The construction and management cost of a school is highly depended on the cost involved with overheads, common facilities and infrastructure. It is clear that the cost involved in construction & management of a mixed school is less than the cost involved in construction and management of a single-sex school. The Government can easily divert this money for other projects in education in mixed schools instead. Because of this economical reason there should not be separate schools for males and females.


Third, there should not be separate schools for males and females, because of the lack of subject knowledge seen among the students form single-sex schools due to inadequate competition amoung children. The student who scores full marks in any subject feels that he is the best for that subject if he finds no competition for that subject among the other students in the class. It is very difficult to find employment in modern-fast-paced society. Unemployment rate is gradually increasing in every where in the world. One should have an excellent knowledge about his major subject to find the job he likes. School is the first place is to learn the competition. In single-sex schools the competition is virtually eliminated by 50%. Because of this reason the final product of a single-sex schools enters the society with inadequate subject knowledge.


Therefore, there should not be separate schools for males and females. The acceptance of the society and the quality of subject knowledge of the students passing out from mixed schools are very high. On the other hand the cost involved in construction and maintenance of single sex schools are very high. That is why there should not be separate schools for males and females. There are so many categories of discriminations in the world. People hate any kind of discrimination; whether it is sex, race, religion and status in the society. Therefore, there should not be any kind of discrimination in the type of education too.


Number of words � 660.





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Friday, December 30, 2011

Bishop

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Despite the social expectations on a person of his eminence and position, the bishop was still an individual with sins. He addressed those around him as nephews, this being a term for illegitimate sons whom he fathered. The vows and his position as a bishop did not prevent him from committing adultery.


Despite the bishop existing in a privileged position in society, death renders the individual alone. The reader is able to see the foolishness of the bishop in his pleas for how his body was to be treated after his death, and his apparent belief that he would still somehow be able to think and see from within his body after death. Yet, he was still bound by the pre-conceptions of society Eto have glamour and position even at death, when it stopped meaning anything. He was afraid that his son and ‘nephewsEwould revel down my villas after his death. He tried to use blackmail and threats such as else I give the Pope my villas in order to get what he wants, but fails.


For the religious, death effectively freed the individual from these baser concepts, but the contrast between his apparent preaching and his bargaining showed the conflict between the two sides of this individual the “properEone with a religious face in the pulpit, and the selfish, crude, lewd, jealous individual that is hidden from society’s eye.


This hypocrisy was also apparent in the persona’s obsession about material wealth in his gloating over the planned material for his tomb True peach, rosy and flawless how I earned the prize, and his meaningless fighting over the stone to be used in his tomb.


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Pretending to stand above the morals of a corrupted society, ironically the bishop, with his wealth and power, manifested more traits of human sin and greed than those he preached to. This hypocrisy was shown by the contrast of preaching and pleading and gloating throughout the entire poem. Peaces, peace seems allE fought with tooth and nail to save my niche. In addition to that, he mixed the sexual imagery of his mistress with the religious imagery of Madonna in his description of the lapis lazuli being Blue as a vein o’er the Madonna’s breast. He also wanted a mixture of religious, pagan and lewd imagery carved on his sepulchre, such as Saint Praxed in a glory, and one Pan Ready to twitch the Nymph’s last garment off, And Moses with the tables.


Like soldiers dividing the cloths of Christ as he was being sacrificed, these society-ordained and self-described ‘bishopsEdivided up the Church for their personal glory Eeven in death, reserving for themselves niches and snatching corners of the Church in which to place their tombs. The persona even went so far as to implore God curse the same upon Gandolf’s body. In addition to that, it was revealed that so much was saved if aught were missed during the conflagration of his church, when he took a lump of lapis lazuli away with him. The usage of the grotesque imagery of a Jew’s head cut off at the nape also indicated the anti-Semitism that simmered under the surface of the Church of that time. Supposedly loving bishops were in fact longing for racial genocide.


It is often said that humankind long to be God. This was especially true for this particular bishop, who hoped to have the lump of lapis lazuli poise between my knees, Like God the Father’s globe on both his hands. He hoped to have people worship his tomb like ye worship in the Jesu Church so gay.


Despite all his bad deeds, it is without doubt that the bishop felt the likeness of guilt, which manifests itself in his outbursts of ah God, I know not. Like a selfish and blaming society, he attempted to place his guilt and his downfall upon others, such as his sons or his dead mistress. Ever your eyes were as a lizard’s quick, They glitter like your mother’s for my soul.


The end of the poem was that of hopelessness for the hallucinating bishop who was still convinced that Gandolf was leering at him from his tomb.





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Should we reduce the human impact on Kosciusko National Park

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Australia’s alpine area is relatively small. Because of this, environmental impacts are important. Each day during summer at least 000 people visit Kosciusko National Park (K.N.P.). The impacts of bushwalkers and skiers are an important factor in looking at the human impact on K.N.P., also the facilities provided to entice them into the park, as well as the money generated through tourism for both the National Park and Wildlife Service (N.P.W.S.) and the local community.


Bushwalkers adversely affect wet and dry areas. Where there are high visitor numbers the soil becomes compacted and forms artificial channels. In wet areas, these channels cause rapid drainage of the site, while in dry areas people walk across areas that seem most accessible and informal tracks are formed (N.P.W.S). The channels formed in dry areas make walking difficult and walkers start to walk beside the channels forming new paths and enlarging the area of erosion (Soil Conservation Society).


N.P.W.S. have undertaken to build and maintain formal tracks for the use of bushwalkers. Tracks are built in an attempt to prevent excessive damage to the alpine region. N.P.W.S have stated though, that the use of the same route constantly causes the loss of vegetation, soil compaction and erosion (1). Construction of tracks causes disturbances to native plants, which causes erosion of the soil to begin; subsequently exotic grasses and plants are introduced to help stabilize the tracks (Soil Conservation Society). Gravel used to help stabilize tracks is often washed off tracks during rain and snowmelt; this material is deposited downstream over vegetation. This often causes a modification of the existing plant communities (N.P.W.S.).


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N.P.W.S. have constructed boardwalks to prevent damage to fragile plant communities in wet and dry areas. The boardwalks prevent erosion by keeping the walkers off the soil. Construction of boardwalks however like tracks causes damage to the existing plant communities. Boardwalks are high maintenance often requiring seasonal repairs. In the winter months boardwalks often collapse under the weight of the snow crushing the plants beneath (Soil Conservation Society).


Tracks and boardwalks provide easy access to alpine areas that families and inexperienced bushwalkers would not normally see. Marked tracks have the advantage of providing useful information to the walker of where they are going, how long till they get there and how long to get back to beginning. Tracks also help prevent hikers from becoming lost. Tracks are a useful resource for people to discover the environment. However, they tend to destroy it as well. If we dispense with formal tracks, we will have people walking all over the mountainside disrupting fragile plant communities. If we tolerate a small amount of disturbance around the tracks, the environment will suffer less. The main problem with formal tracks and boardwalks is the maintenance. Funding is limited and N.P.W.S. need the income from the tourists.


The winter is K.N.P.’s biggest money earner. With the arrival of snow come the skiers, who spend large sums of money to enjoy the slopes. The environmental impacts associated with skiing can be looked at in two categories construction and operation. Construction covers impacts that are a result of permanent features as well as the construction process. Operations relates to the day-to-day running of the resorts.


Construction impacts can be reduced at the time of design and building of facilities including the selection of site, preventing damage to vegetation and controlling any run off. Once a facility is built however, it is much harder to improve impacts except through reconstruction that would cause more environmental impacts in itself.


Operations are the easier of the two to manage, as it is a control of day-to-day running. Often the control of impacts due to operations is directly linked to the number of skiers, which resorts want to maximize. During day-to-day management, resorts operate machinery that use water and resources and generate wastes. This depends on the number of people travelling to and from the ski fields (Buckley, Pickering, Warnken).


Within the management of the resort of the resort is slope grooming, a regular procedure of ski fields around the world. Heavy machinery and explosives are used to produce a bare, rock less surface from the top of the slope to the bottom. Cleared areas are often replanted with exotic grasses. Slope grooming can lead to serious erosion problems. With heavy rainfall, cleared areas often become a channel and silt and rocks washed down the mountainside cause damage to vegetation not affected by the grooming. (Broome, Mansergh)


Not all skiers stay at resorts and use downhill skiing facilities. Cross-country skiing is popular with those wanting to be away from the crowds. Cross-country skiers spend their time in the high country around the glacial lakes (Bent 1). Cross Country, skiers often spend a night or more in the wilderness sleeping in tents or constructed snow caves. Intensive camping in and around glacial lakes has led to compaction of soil, loss of vegetation and faecal contamination of the lakes. Cross-country skiers see themselves as greener than their down hill counterparts and are often referred to as bushwalkers on skis. Because cross country skiers spend time away from the resorts and have no access to facilities like toilets and bins, contamination of the area often results, both forms of skiing have impacts on the environment (Buckley. Et.al)


While the impacts of cross country skiing may seem negligible when compared to downhill, the impacts are still there and contribute to the deterioration of K.N.P. Downhill skiers also invest more money into the park as opposed to cross country skiers who are less likely to buy lift tickets or stay in accommodation. Cross-Country skiers do not contribute as much money to the up keep of the park.


Economic activity generated by tourism in K.N.P contributes to the local community. Many residents of local towns previously forced to travel to the city to find work, now find employment in and around the resorts. Local Businesses receive extra exposure during the tourist season giving their businesses are lift (Thornhill 18)


N.P.W.S Also benefits from the tourism; they receive park entry fees and donations from the tourists and resorts to help maintain the area. Government funding can only spread so far. This makes the tourism industry important to N.P.W.S. The park entrance fee charged by N.P.W.S is unimportant when compared with the cost of maintain K.N.P. (000)


Groups like the Ski Club of Australia and the Outdoor Recreation Party feel that more development of the region and the extension of existing facilities would be beneficial to both local community and N.P.W.S. N.P.W.S have in the past been accused of having a radical green agenda. In addition, N.P.W.S are blamed for the slowing of development in the area, although most developments are approved faster than those through a local council. (Thornhill 18)


N.P.W.S realise that a large amount of the money for the upkeep of the park is generated through tourism; to lessen the amount of tourists to the area would diminish the money as well. The local communities also need the tourism if their small businesses are to survive.


The impact by humans on K.N.P. is great enough that reductions are necessary. Soil compaction and erosion caused by bushwalkers and cross country skiers , contamination of the glacial lakes as well as the impacts of the resorts and down hill skiing slopes are all part of a problem that N.P.W.S have been trying to rectify since K.N.P was created. However, N.P.W.S have the difficulty of trying to reduce these impacts without reducing the tourism dollar that the park needs to survive. Without the tourists, the income to the park and the local community would be greatly reduced. For the survival of the alpine region human impact does need to be reduced but not at the cost of the surrounding community and the park itself.





Bent, R, 18, Cross Country Skiers and Australian Resorts, La Trobe University,


Melbourne, Australia


Buckley, R, Pickering, C, Warnken, J, 000, Tourism and development in Mountain


regions, CABI Publishing


Mansergh.I & Broome.L, 14, The Mountain Pygmy-Possum of the Australian


Alps, NSW University Press, Sydney


NPWS, 001, The Australian Alps Education Kit, NPWS, Australia


NSW NPWS, 1, Toward Conservation and recreation management of the


Kosciusko Alpine Area, NPWS, NSW


Soil Conservation Service of NSW, 1, Above the Treeline, Australia


Thornhill, A, 18, Factors Influencing the Regulation of Tourism Operations in


Protected AreasThe Kosciuszko National Park Ski Resorts Case Study, Faculty of Law. University of Wollongong, Australia


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Thursday, December 29, 2011

Special Songs

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I have two songs that are special to me. One brings me comfort. When I’m feeling a little low, I listen to it and the song makes me want to be myself. The other cheers me up and can change my mood just because it is fun to listen to.


The first song is sung by Jessica Simpson and was written by M. Beckman and A. Bagge. The title of the song is ‘Woman In Me.’ It states that ‘the face that I see is the woman in me, is the woman that I want to be.’ It talks about a girl who looks in the mirror and realizes that she doesn’t underestimate herself anymore. That can make any girl feel better about herself. When a person loves who they are, they can do whatever they want to do. It doesn’t matter what anyone else says or thinks. Sometimes that is just what I need to hear, even though I don’t really worry what others think of me.


The second song is sung by the Bee Gees and is also written by them (Maurice, Barry, and Robin that is). Their music is soothing to me. The song is ‘Jive Talkin.’ It is just a fun song with a good beat that makes me feel good. The song begins with ‘It’s just your jive talkin’ you’re telling me lies, yeah. Jive talkin’ you wear a disguise. Jive talkin’ so misunderstood, yeah. Jive talkin’ you’re really no good.’ I actually do not understand what jive talkin’ is but it just has a catchy ring to it. When I hear it, I’ve got to tap my foot or nod my head. I cannot stay still. I don’t know many people who can.


These two songs can make me feel good when I am gloomy or feeling down. The first helps me to feel better about the person that I am. The second brings me out of any bad mood that I am in and makes my good moods even better. Everyone needs something that can help him or her feel good.


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Why a Graduate Degree

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“Why a Graduate Degree?”





There are many different reasons why I am pursuing a Graduate Degree. I personal feel it would be a great accomplishment to have got my Graduate Degree in Organizational Management. The education will help me to be better prepared for a more rewarding job. By having a Graduate Degree it will open doors for better opportunities in the workplace for me. In addition to receiving a Graduate Degree it lets the employer know that not only with the experiences you have in an occupation, but you have taken that extra step to educate your mind for that occupation. That acknowledge and experiences your receive while in Graduate school expands your mind to social issues and causes.





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Another reason for pursuing a Graduate Degrees is in today environment people are obtaining Graduate Degree so they can be more competitive in the business world. I need to be competitive with everyone else if I want to be successful in the business world. The occupation that I am pursuing will also require me to study for different certification in order for me to competitive for different positions in the business world. So this is just the beginning of me making myself more marketable for higher positions.





The final reason for me pursuing a Graduate Degree is for my children. An education can take you along ways in life if you pursue it the right way. Even those I have a family and a working mom, I am still trying to educate myself. This will show them that is takes dedication and perseverance to go under and beyond what is require of most people. Some people think all you need is a Bachelors Degree and that is an enough, but not me. I teach my children if the next man can do it, so can I. I tell them the story about when I was a kid that I did not learn how to read on my grade level until the age of 11. I had to work real hard at my education to get where I am today. I hope to show by receiving my Graduate Degree it would encourage them to pursue their Graduate Degree. I want my children to feel that way about their education, too.








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Wednesday, December 28, 2011

Crime fiction-the real inspector hound/ the hound of the baskervilles

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The Hound of the Baskervilles, directed by David Atwood uses various methods to create a ‘cosy crime’ film. Tom Stoppard however deals with a different approach in his satirical play The Real Inspector Hound. Although these two media vary they each have a place in the crime fiction genre.


David Atwood uses scenery extensively to set up the ‘cosy crime’ feeling in The Hound of the Baskervilles. One of the main features is the near isolated manor in which the Baskervilles reside. The only other residence belonging to the Stapletons on the moor lands. The large Manor and isolated state is conclusive to the ‘cosy crime’ genre that sets the film up with a plot classic to its stereotype. The manor allows for the limited characters of ‘cosy crime’ with the suspect in close proximity of the victim or victims with no outside factors to interfere.


The cold misty English countryside surrounding Baskerville hall is another representation of the ‘cosy crime’ genre. Throughout the film the audience is shown panoramic scenes of English moors rolling with fog. This is used to disguise and confuse the characters in most ‘cosy crimes’ and adds an almost haunting touch to the film when mixed with the howls of the Hound.


These techniques differ to the ones used by tom Stoppard in The Real Inspector Hound. As The Real Inspector Hound is a play there is little room for scenery that shows the setting. The character of Mrs. Drudge, the housekeeper compensates for this. Her line Hello the drawing-room of Lady Muldoon’s country residence one morning in early spring sets the scene of a large country manor accompanied by the descriptions of the stage sets for the play. Mrs Drudges line later continues with …charming but isolated Muldoon Manor. You did well to get here before high water cuts us off for all practical purposes of the outside world. These comments while humorous and over the top are repeated several times throughout the play and establish what the author wants, that The Real Inspector Hound is a satire on ‘cosy crime.’


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Tom Stoppard also uses a radio announcement to set the scene Police are hampered by the deadly swamps and fog, but believe that a mad man spent last night on the deserted cottage on the cliffs. The image this creates emphasises the potential for mystery and danger around the house, which is again suited for the constraints of the ‘cosy crime’ genre of crime fiction.


The characters developed by David Atwood in The Hound of the Baskervilles and Tom Stoppard The Real Inspector Hound are mostly stereotypical to the ideal inhabitants of a ‘cosy crime’. The detective in The Hound of the Baskervilles is Sherlock Holmes. Like many ‘cosy crime’ detectives he is fairly erratic in behaviour. Holmes uses this to concentrate single-mindedly on the case and clues he is investigating. The scene in the film that supports this is where Watson is discussing Homes unusual traits with dinner party guests at the Stapletons. His reference to Holmes not being able to discuss philosophy yet can focus on a crime intensively expresses this sentiment. Holmes uses his typically unusual ways and eccentric abilities to solve the crime he is investigating in a manner that is exclusively his.


David Atwood’s Holmes also adheres to the arrogant, know-all detective type. This category of detective is common to ‘cosy crime’ as the protagonist is normally all too aware of their superb crime solving abilities. This is mirrored in The Hound of the Baskervilles where Sherlock Holmes turns up on the black tor in the surroundings of Baskerville Hall. When Watson finds Holmes, Watson is glad to see him, however Holmes takes an arrogant stance and says I’ve been expecting you. He then continues to explain how crucial his role in the case is. This section is just one example of Holmes ‘cosy crime’ arrogant attitude in where he considers himself above his colleague Watson.


Tom Stoppard’s Inspector Hound however, is a ridiculous parody of the ‘cosy crime.’ He enters the play as a peculiar man in large boots carrying a foghorn. In The Real Inspector Hound Tom Stoppard uses parody to send up the ‘Arrogant know-all detective type’ that belongs to ‘cosy crime’ as well as a variety of others. Stoppard has Hound mistake the victim under the lounge, then insist his mistake is correct.


Cynthia But who’s that? (corpse)


Hound Your husband.


Cynthia No its not


Hound Yes he is.


As seen above Stoppard uses his amusing script to get his view of the ‘cosy crime’ detective across.


The presence of British aristocracy is heavily felt through David Atwood’s The Hound of the Baskervilles and The Real Inspector Hound. This is an essential for the ‘cosy crime’ genre. The ‘lords and ladies’ go hand in hand with the large Manor mentioned earlier, as ‘cosy crime’ is where the traditional English dignity and etiquette is affronted by a violent crime. In The Hound of the Baskervilles the gentry is Sir Henry Baskerville. While he is not the typical English gentleman his mere presence is enough to count The Hound of the Baskervilles as a ‘cosy crime.’


Although Atwood’s gentry are fairly believable Tom Stoppard takes his aristocrats to the extreme. In his effort to create a satire of ‘cosy crime’ Stoppard has the character of Cynthia enters by walking of a tennis court in a cocktail dress, formally coiffured. He gets the desired effect with this entrance as it can be clearly seen the play is a parody on the conventions of ‘cosy crime.’


While the characters of the critics are non-existent in the restraints of ‘cosy crime’ Tom Stoppard uses his to establish that his play is based around crime fiction. In the opening scene the conversation goes as such


Birdboot …I mean its sort of a thriller, isn’t it?


Moon is it?


Birdboot that’s what I heard. Who killed thing? No one will leave the house.


Moon underneath?!? It’s a whodunit man! - Look at it!


In this conversation Stoppards play within a play is set to the rules of the ‘cosy crime’ leaving reader open to his satire.


The Red Hering is one of the most vital parts of ‘cosy crime’. This is important because is one way a composer draws their audience into the media presented. The red herring is planted to confuse both the character and the audience. This person’s actions are guilty until it is found they were a mere decoy.


David Atwood’s direction makes the audience and detectives suspect the butler in The Hound of The Baskervilles. This is because of the viewpoint offered in the movie when Holmes and Watson are chasing the carriage at the start of the film. The audience is only shown the carriage through Holmes and Watson’s point of view, never seeing the person in the carriage. The audience is also told that the character had a black beard, like the butler. This stance is further backed up by his suspicious behaviour. When the real reason behind this is revealed the audience is shown all the characters perspectives. The consequence of this is that they stop seeing the butler as a suspect and instead see him as the red herring. This is the most expected plot twist in the ‘cosy crime’ genre.


The red herring is less subtle in The Real Inspector Hound. The all the characters in the play are set up as decoys. Stoppard, sending up the concept of a red herring has all characters say at least once- I’ll kill you Simon Gascoyne, in various contexts. However unlike The Hound of The Baskervilles the innocent characters are cleared at the end.


The Hound of the Baskervilles is a valuable text in the crime fiction genre. It is an excellent example of the ‘cosy crime’ section of crime fiction. The film is a make of a classic crime fiction work that has been the background for the crime fiction genre. The film also sticks to the conventions of classic crime fiction, which makes it valuable to compare more recent texts with. The Hound of the Baskervilles represents one of the most famous fictional Detectives, Sherlock Holmes which makes it an important film as it shows a significant interpretation of the classic detective.


The Real Inspector Hound however, shows how the conventions of crime fiction can be creatively manipulated to suit another purpose. The play allows its readers to see the sometimes-unrealistic world crime fiction occasionally portrays. Although the majority parts in the play are obscenely exaggerated the play holds value in the fact that it shows how ridiculous the crime fiction genre can be.


In conclusion The Hound of the Baskervilles, directed by David Atwood creates a serious portrayal of the ‘cosy crime’ film. Tom Stoppard however deals with a different approach and uses satire in his quest to ‘send up’ the conventions of ‘cosy crime’ in The Real Inspector Hound. Although these two media have completely different aims and outcomes they each have a valued place in the crime fiction genre.





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"Animal Farm" by George Orwell- Review

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Animal Farm by George Orwell


Review


This novella is set in England in a common rural farm area. It is a classified as a fantasy, because the animals are personified and appear to have the same average intelligence as humans. The story begins with the animals of Manor Farm stage a revolution against the farmer in control, Mr. Jones. This idea is put forward by the most senior and respected pig on the farm, called Major, as a vision for the future. The leadership of the farm in then voted to the pigs, which are agreed to be the most intelligent animals on the farm. The most outspoken pigs, Snowball and Napoleon take charge of the farm and are joint leaders, in a democratically run system. As the story progresses, Snowball is run off the farm by Napoleon and branded as a traitor and a hindrance to the animal’s freedom and prosperity. He is said to be in league with the hated Mr. Jones. The democratic government breaks down, and a new order, not unlike communism, is brought in, with Napoleon as the sole leader. The rules agreed, and set by all the animals at the beginning of the newly renamed Animal Farm are changed to suit the pigs’ needs, regardless of the other animal’s work for them. This is done without their understanding. The novella ends with the pigs being unrecognizable and morphing into humans.


‘Animal Farm’ shows how communism works in theory as a fair and just system. . It, however, fails to take in the greed and selfishness seemingly built into every human being. In ‘Animal Farm’ this is shown as Snowball’s chalk drawing of the windmill, the animal’s highest goal. The blueprint looks impressive and is said to be a fine piece of architectural work, although few of the animals understand what the plans mean. Communism cannot work unless the leader appointed is inhuman in his ability to put others before himself. This is reflected in George Orwell’s novella as the animals start out with good intentions, but in the end fail to set up their own fair system. This is a mistake made everyday in human society also. The fact that the pigs used deception, violence and the other animal’s ignorance to their advantage is another trademark of a communist regime.


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Although the animals seem to have human intelligence, only one has a pessimistic attitude. This is Benjamin the donkey, and he is the only one who foresees what will happen to the farm if they try to take over. This sets a dismal tone to the book, seemingly suggesting that the only attitude that is a true reflection of today’s society is a pessimistic one. This might have been true of the time the book was written, although the world has changed a lot since the time of the Second World War, humans continually make mistakes in regard to government.


This book is a true reflection of the dangers of communism. It shows that the victims of this regime are often the most innocent and hardworking, as in the case of Boxer. It also suggests that good intentions are not a cure for selfishness and greed. ‘Animal Farm’ was written by a man who originally believed in the concept of communism, but then learned that no matter how hard you try, you cannot overcome man’s selfishness. Although the animals fail to make a fair and just communistic government, George Orwell unmistakably wanted to show that the story was a reflection of mankind’s own failures. This is clearly shown in the ending when the tyrannical pigs are indistinguishable from humans.


Sarah Jemmett





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Tuesday, December 27, 2011

GLOBALISATION and GOVERNMENT INCENTIVES (Australia)

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“Discuss why it is increasingly important for the Australian business to expand internationally. Discuss the role of government assistance and incentives in supporting business to expand internationally.”


There are many advantages expanding internationally.


A business could increase in sales and achieve new market by expanding overseas. A business making a particular product or service may find that its product has special international appeal. Ally Craft is a privately owned business on the Gold Coast involved in the production of a wide range of aluminium boats. Because of Australia’s climatic factor, there is a seasonal decline of sales from late February to April. This is a disadvantage in the profit of the business. However, Ally Craft decided to export towards the Pacific Island market where their product is in higher demand because of the tropical climate of this region to maintain cash flow. The business increased in sales due to the new markets gained in Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia and Fiji.


Expanding internationally enables a company to expand via diversification. The risks the business could encounter is reduced by relying solely on a limited market and starting new products or offering new services. Diversification was a step taken by CSR. CSR is a company originally incorporated in New South Wales. Its prime function was sugar refining. However, CSR became varied and diversified moving into building materials and later into resources. Establishing new activities and acquiring existing businesses in the US, New Zealand and other Asian countries achieved expansion which enabled diversification to take place.


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Some businesses expand to acquire resources and gain access to technology. Many resources are unavailable and difficult to obtain locally due to factors like the country’s climate, geological structure and history. This is why some businesses often need to relocate part of their operations in other countries. The Perth make-up artist Rebecca Williams decided to go global from day one. “Germany had the technology we were looking for. They also understood our quality requirements better than others.” (quoted from BRW May 1, 00 p.8). Her brand, Becca Cosmetics is manufactured in Germany, packaged in Italy, and assembled and distributed from Perth, where the company is based.





The government have traditionally accepted the role of addressing flaws in areas where the market fails to provide maximum outcomes, especially in the complex area of globalisation. The government support businesses to expand internationally by providing assistance and incentives. The Australian government have been involved in a process of eliminating tariffs and other trade barrier under the World Trade Organisation (WTO) agreements to foreign direct investment. Australia is increasingly becoming an open economy. If our firms are to rise to the challenge of international competition they need to be outwardly focused. Australian firms must adapt to changing market circumstances. The Government must create an environment where resources both capital and labour can flow to the most productive industries. Government assistance to firms to overcome the risks involved in entering foreign markets. As a result to these actions, international business activities have increased greatly.








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In the novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding, structure is used to show a clear pattern of change, through both the events in the story and the characters. This effectively conveys the theme of man’s inherent evil and builds tension in the plot to ho

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In the novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding, structure is used to show a clear pattern of change, through both the events in the story and the characters. This effectively conveys the theme of man’s inherent evil and builds tension in the plot to hold the readers attention.


There is a clear pattern of change throughout the novel, which shows the transition from civilised to savage in an environment without society’s boundaries. This is obvious in the leadership of the boys. At the beginning of the novel, Ralph is elected as chief of the groups, and establishes a democracy where everyone is free to have their own say. But by the end of the novel, Jack controls his tribe in a primitive and dictatorial manner. “You see! They do what I say!” The small bouts of bullying towards Piggy “Shut up Fatty” have developed to a point where the boys kill Simon and murder Piggy.


This change is also shown through the characters. Jack begins the novel as an arrogant but moral English boy. “We’ve got to have rules and obey them”. However, as he becomes a skilled and obsessive hunter, he is revealed as a bully, tyrant and agressor who asserts his authority through fear and blood-lust. Roger is another character who undergoes this change. At the start of the story, he throws stones at the littluns but aims to miss “There was an area around Henry where he dare not throw. Here, invisible yet strong, lay the taboo of the old life”. But the straints of civilisation slowly slip away as the boys lapse into barbarism and near the end of the novel, Roger levers a boulder off a cliff at Castle rock, killing piggy.


The structure Golding uses helps to build tension in the plot, and keeps the reader guessing and interested. We do not reach the climax of the story till the last chapter, when the boys are hunting Ralph “a stick sharpened at both ends”. By now, they have destroyed most of the Island with fire, and we are captured in anxiety, shocked by how far the boys “evilness” will go. The arrival of the navel officer on the beach shocks us back to reality, and the boys are but we are still left wondering how far the boys would have gone if left un-interrupted.


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A clear pattern of change shown through the events and characters in Lord of the Flies is used to convey the theme of mans evil nature, as it allows the clear transition from good to evil. It also builds tension in the story, as we wonder what will happen to these seemingly innocent Englishboys as they slip away from civilisation.





Please note that this sample paper on In the novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding, structure is used to show a clear pattern of change, through both the events in the story and the characters. This effectively conveys the theme of man’s inherent evil and builds tension in the plot to ho is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on In the novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding, structure is used to show a clear pattern of change, through both the events in the story and the characters. This effectively conveys the theme of man’s inherent evil and builds tension in the plot to ho, we are here to assist you. Your cheap research papers on In the novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding, structure is used to show a clear pattern of change, through both the events in the story and the characters. This effectively conveys the theme of man’s inherent evil and builds tension in the plot to ho will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Monday, December 26, 2011

Psychoanalysis and Cultural Theory

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There is a translation issue to be dealt with when we think of culture in these terms the German word Kultur can mean either high culture or civilization generally. Freud scorned the differentiation, but it is worth bearing in mind that the meaning of culture in german is not a straightforward translation into English, and that Freuds use of it at the time would have been loaded by the weight of these two meanings (translations tend to use civilization as a noun, and cultural as the adjective).


In Freuds meta-psychological schema culture is an expression of the struggle to overcome dilemmas, which are either instinctual, or a clash between instinctual drives and civilization. There is usually a conflictual schema being employed to look at warring currents. Freuds methods of looking at dreams, etc. can also be applied to texts and other cultural products a surface with conflicting mental currents (manifest), with censored issues beneath the surface (latent).


Culture or the artwork is a symptom of our attempt to escape nature and natural ties in the form of specific human desires; this clash of nature and culture is an overriding concern in the Freudian narrative of the gradual civilization of our natural impulses. The modern individual is the product of that dialectic, and it is the tension caused by that dialectic that emerge in symptomatic form in dreams, psychological syptoms and various cultural forms.


So there are nineteenth century inheritances in this schemea; for example the Emlightenment idea of the heroic culture controlling nature (see the slogan Where Id was, there shall Ego be). Ego over Id come up clearly on the side of civilization, control, and this is also an Enlightenment inheritance.


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Another important distinction is the paralllel between ontogeny and phylogeny.


Ontogeny is the evolution of the individual consciousness or subject, through childooh to adulthood. Phylogeny describes the evolution of the species. Our individual development fro childhood is seen as recapitulating the development of civilizaiton. (This has roots in Victorian embryology studies) The pre-socialised infant struggles to catch up with society - and this involves the sacrifice of the individuals instinctual payload.


Freud judges psychological symptoms by their relationship to the adult ability to lewave immature childhood behaviour behind. Neuroses have been seen as the failure to mature. Pathological behaviour generally is seen as a failure to mature - what is normal for the child is not normal for the adult. Pathological symptoms can be seen as an exaggeration of normality (see Adorno only exaggerations are true). Art and Literature can be seen as expressions of these exaggerations. Hamlet and Oedipus Rex have classically been seen as the expression of this process.


Another way of interpreting art taken from dream analysis is the theory of wish-fulfillment. This posits the repression of a wish which is then expressed, at least partially, in the drama of the art (again, see Oedipus Rex). The hungry person will dream of food.... but there is a more complex way of looking at this, when the wish is taboo, and has to be censored by the dream and is expressed in a different form. The standard mode of analysis of dreams is to see wishes pushing for a fantasised fulfillment, and then a mental censorship against that expression, which in turn leads to a coding of the dream, in symbolic form. Hence there is a need fo analysis, which decodes.


A frequent form of analysis is to see these expressions as cathartic. Again, the theatre is a good example, but can also be posited as a reason for the consumption of art anyway. In this sense, catharsis is a normative idea art acts as a substitute for behaviour we have to repress. The substitution prevents an explosion caused by this repression. An example would be the libido as repressed sexual energy - which can be channelled into other expressions. Freuds ideas were led by those of Plato, (whose account of passion involvers the idea of sublimation) and by Aristotles ideas of catharsis. The spectacle of the arena, and the role of tragedy and comedy are, for Aristotle, an outlet for repressed instincts.


This theorising has led to a culturally conservative right wing version, which sees a conformist leaning in the theory culture as substitute gratification which mean that we remain within the norms; and a left wing version, based on a Marxist interpretation which holds that art is the opium of the people. The Frankfurt School was influenced by the idea that, far from challenging the world, popular art performed a substitutive role in socity allowing the controlled expression of otherwise repressed desires.


The clinical work on catharsis is based on Freuds early work on hysteria, which uses a hydraulic model of dammed-up energies requiring release. A primary trauma early in life, involving the repression of various instinctual energies, which are still present, eating away at the subject becuase the trauma has not been discharged. Psychoanalytic theory can tap into these energies and allow discharge of trauma. Although Freud moved away from these theories, he hung onto the idea of catharsis.


There are several theories which can be applied to art, and which can also be used in sociology, history, etc


1. Oedipus theory


Incest and murder, involving rebellion against father or authority figure (God/society)


. The struggle to be separate from the mother/nature


Examines original fusion of the foetus and the mother; who are not as object and subject. The foetus experiences no gap between its needs and gratification. Life is downhill from the womb. We need to find ways of meeting needs (this is associated symbolically with the fall from Eden, etc). Depending on their leaning, left or right thinkers see this as either motivational or regressional.


. Wish fulfillment


Play as an activity is a return to the play (and eroticism) of childhood. The drama or the artwork collects together psychological concerns and impulses of the artist which have been repressed as the adult moves away from the childhood permissiveness of play, and can therefore be used in analysis. There is a psychological entity producing artworks, and this can be analysed - but the analysis has to take into account the society/context in which the artwork is produced.


Often in the analysis of the psycho-drama of artworks, particularly in literature, the protagonist is seen as being representative of the ego. An example is the Frankfurt Schools interpretation of Homers Odyssey which sees the narrative as one describning the development of the hero from a nascent primitive state to a civilised one, and therefore as a netaphor for the development of modern man. Odysseus overcomes temptation, deities, natural forces. He controls his pleasure-seeking crew, and overcomes the primitive temptation of erotic encounter with woman (nature/mother figure). Eventually the crew fail to defer gratification and are lost, whereas the hero returns at the end of the journay - an archetype of hero as ego.


Despite its innocence, childhood also has a darker side sibling rivalry, aggression and jealousy towards the parents. Frueds instinctual schema involves the distinction between Eros and Thanatos Love and Death. There is a subtle negative regression towards death and violence, and this is where Freud starts his analysis of the figure of the anti-hero. We identify with the anti-hero because they express aggression and other emotions which we do not allow ourselves to express.


If there is a tendency in adulthood to recapitulate childhood struggles, then there is the phylogenetic version of that; the repetition of the struggles of the human race to emerge from its primate ancestry. This involves a link between Oedipal complex and various dramas in our primevel ancestral groups. This revolves around pseudo-anthropological analysis of group dynamics, related to our primate origins.


It should be remembered that there is also a chronological aspect to psychoanalysis, which deals with past, present and future as it looks at how we progress/mature in phases.


It should also be borne in mind that symbols are not necessarily transpersonal otherwise this lead to a crude, mechanical interpretation based on the assumption of fixed meanings for any given symbol. There is a value in fee association in psychoanalysis the analysis of personal symbols, which has an artistic expression oin the free-association writing of Woolf, and in surrealist art. Prousts madeleine is another example of the action of a personal symbol, which has profound meaning in the context of the narrators psych-drama.


Much analysis of this kind is based on exposing meanings which are deeper than surface level. There are ideas here about surface and depth which have been playfully inverted by postmodern discourse, which has attached significance to the surface, and moved away from an idea that tru menaing is found beneath it. This playful turn, although an inversion, is nonetheless in dialogue with Freud.


Freuds work itself has also been classified as literature he is aproducer of tragedy, in some critical terminology. One view of his work is that we, as a society, should simply continue with the processes of civilization. Others argue that we should look at the tensions in art as a critique of society and civilization, and therefore as reparative of problems. So there is a problem of adjustment. There is some sense in Freud of modifying the tension to move forward, but he is in an uncomfortable position, as he is not interested in proposing the identification of causes of tension as a programme for revolutionary change. Another problem arises from his analysis of primitive and civilised, which was partly based on the anthropology of today. Recent scholarship has revealed the empiricist content of this work,and this has been used to critique Freuds conclusion, although it seem s that Freud would have argued that there is no difference in the tensions between primitive and civilised societies.


According to Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams we all have repressed wishes and desires. One of the most common of these repressed desires is the wish to sexually possess the parent of the opposite sex and eliminate the same sex parent. Freud named this theory the Oedipus Complex (which he discusses in detail in an essay entitled Some Psychical Consequences of the Anatomical Distinction Between the Sexes). This was named after the mythical Oedipus who killed his father and married his mother without knowing that they were his parents. In Oedipus Rex the basic wish-fantasy of the child is brought to light and realised as it is in dreams, in Hamlet it remains repressed, and we learn of its existence only through the effects which proceed from it.


In Hamlet and Oedipus, Ernest Jones (Freud’s student and biographer) states that


With his fathers death and his mothers hasty remarriage-[Hamlet] associates the idea of


sexuality with his mother and so this facet of his subconscious enters into the family relationship.


Gertrude’s sexuality invades the play and Hamlet’s long repressed desire to take his father’s place is unconsciously stimulated by the sight of someone else taking this long coveted position. Hamlet is even more disgusted due to the fact that Claudius is his father’s brother and to Hamlet this seems to be incestuous, indeed the ghost of Hamlet’s father calls Claudius “that incestuous, that adulterate beast.” This remark seems to add a spark of jealousy to Hamlet’s anger which is manifested in the sniping remarks that he makes to Claudius


KING CLAUDIUS But now, my cousin Hamlet, and my son,--


HAMLET [Aside] A little more than kin, and less than kind.


In the opening scenes of Hamlet the family unit has been altered to include Claudius as the father which places Hamlet in the rather difficult position of having to choose between two father figures. In order to assume a masculine identity Hamlet must take on the characteristics of his father and, due to the fact that he is confronted by two father figures, Hamlet must kill the false father ( a situation that Shakespeare had previously used to effect in Henry IV). Hamlet has clearly idolised his father for years (comparing him to Hyperion, the Sun-King) a fact borne out by the impassioned speech which he delivers to his mother when he compares his father to Claudius.


Therefore when Hamlet’s father is murdered and Gertrude remarries rather too swiftly for Hamlet’s liking, he feels that he must avenge his father’s death in his role as a dutiful son. In doing so Hamlet can gain the respect of his father and act out the role of main authority figure which his father had done . That is to say that Hamlet could take on the characteristics of the father he had idolised whereby mentally fulfilling the wishes of the Oedipus complex. Wish fulfilment is the desire, unconsciously motivated, to attain those things that provide us with pleasure. This pleasure may or may not be the best thing for our psyche but this does not stop the id (the natural matrix of basic and potentially conflicting instincts or drives) from desiring it and the ego from trying to keep the id happy.


In her work Suffocating Mothers Janet Adelman states that Hamlet is a play that centres on the crisis of the masculine subject and its radical confrontation with the sexualised maternal body, foregrounds male anxiety about mothers, female sexuality, and hence, sexuality itself. Hamlet’s relationship with his mother is obviously the most important aspect of this play but while this is the case, we know very little about Gertrude herself. She is not a powerful character and the play shows very little of her true persona. She is not a wicked woman and she is not a bad mother to Hamlet, vowing to help him and using her last breath to address her son rather than her husband. Gertrude is a woman who knows exactly what is going and never says anything. She knows how her husband was killed and by who but realises that it is a good idea to remain silent on this matter.


It is Gertrude’s passivity in this situation which strikes Hamlet and leads him into thinking of her as a wicked mother. To readers Gertrude does not promote ideas of maternal wickedness but she does to Hamlet and this idea serves only to reiterate his childhood desires. What clearly binds Gertrude and Claudius together, to Hamlet’s horror, is intense sexual attraction. You cannot call it love, he declares, sickened by the very thought of his mothers sexuality. Gertrude’s blatant sexuality is wicked in Hamlet’s eyes as she is allowing herself to be easily possessed. Hamlet’s frustrated Oedipus complex cannot let him support Gertrude’s sexual maternal body and he begins to feel corrupted by her actions


Hamlet feels that his own body has been sullied by his mother’s actions and he wishes that death could save him from the contamination. The world has become “weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable” like a garden which has gone to seed due to that which he cannot bring himself to utter Gertrude’s sexuality. Gertrude’s body has become a garden of vile plants and weeds, a thing “rank and gross in nature”, that is to say that Hamlet believes her middle-aged sexuality to be unnatural and thinks that she has contaminated her son with her deeds.


In this paper, I am going to make a research about the figure of Sigmund Freud, the best well-known author of psychoanalysis. First, I am going to sum up the main principles of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis that are essential to understand its application to the literary theory that I will explain later. I will also talk about Lacan who made a reading of Freud’s theory. And finally, I will talk about some Freud’s books and books that Freud has commented from the point of view of psychoanalysis.


Beginning with Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis, Freud talks about the three forces of the psychical apparatus the id, the ego and the superego. The id has the quality of being unconscious and contains everything that is inherited, everything that is present at birth, and the instincts. The ego has the quality of being conscious and is responsible for controlling the demands of the id and of the instincts, becoming aware of stimuli, and serving as a link between the id and the external world. In addition, the ego responds to stimulation by either adaption or flight, regulates activity, and strives to achieve pleasure and avoid unpleasure. Finally, the superego, whose demands are managed by the id, is responsible for the limitation of satisfactions and represents the influence of others, such as parents, teachers, and role models, as well as the impact of racial, social and cultural traditions.


Freud states that the instincts are the ultimate cause of all behaviour. The two basic instincts are Eros ( love ) and the destructive or death instinct. The purpose of Eros is to establish and preserve unity through relationships. On the other hand, the purpose of death instinct is to undo connections and unity via destruction. The two instincts can either operate against each other through repulsion or combine with each other through attraction.


Freud contends that sexual life begins with manifestations that present themselves soon after birth. The four main phases in sexual development are the oral phase, the sadistic-anal phase, the phallic phase and the genital phase, and each phase is characterized by specific occurrences.


Freud defines the qualities of the psychical process as being either conscious, preconscious, or unconscious. The unconscious is the psychical quality that one has no direct access to. The properties that originate in the unconscious are usually repressed. One can only access the unconscious through indirect interpretations, such as dreams. The preconscious is the psychical quality that one does have access to. While the elements in the preconscious are not present in one’s immediate consciousness, these elements can easily be recovered if necessary. The conscious is the psychical quality that deals with a person’s immediate state of mind. It is composed of what one is thinking and acting right at that moment.


Freud spent many years hypothesizing about the role of dreams and their interpretation. Dreams are undoubtedly caused by conflict and are characterized by their power to bring up memories that the dreamer has forgotten, their strong use of symbolism and their ability to reproduce repressed impressions of the dreamer’s childhood. Dreams are, in addition, capable of bringing up impressions that cannot have originated from the dreamer’s life.


According to Freud, the basic objective of psychoanalysis is to remove neurosis and thereby cure patients by returning the damaged ego to its normal state.


These are the main elements of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis; once we have understood these basic principles, I am going to focus on the literary aspects of this theory.


The ego is trying to keep a balance between the id and the superego, but this balance is practically impossible. The ego’s contact with the external reality, is not a simple contact. The relationship between the ego and the external reality is controversial, threatening, dangerous, and that is the reason why Freud says that the task of the ego is constructive.


As far as the ego modifies reality and instincts, its place of work should be the fiction ( in terms of literature ). If the ego did not build the fictions of balance, if the ego approached completely to reality, this reality would become intolerable. If the ego did the same with its instincts, it would occur the same. So, in this way, the fictionality is an existential obligation.


As I have said in the previous paper, the individual is obliged to alienate himself from reality and shelter himself in an own construction. This shelter’s construction is known as fiction of balance.


The ego tries to keep a balance between the id and the superego. According to Freud, in the unconscious occurs the substitution of the external reality for the psychic one. And this substitution can only be another act of creation and, therefore, of fiction. From these things that I have already said, we can deduce that the ego is not the only one that create, the id and another third person can create too. The ego is a plurality not always present, or a plurality of fictions.


The conscious part of the ego works with the id and the superego, but the unconscious works too, it also creates its fictions, for example, in the dreams. Later, I will talk about The interpretation of dreams of Freud.


Bearing in mind this concept of dreams, we can understand the importance, that in the psychoanalytic literature has, the concept of fantasy or ghost. The creativity of the ego is possible by means of the fantasy. This concept of fantasy is related to the concept of romanticism. The theory of fantasy or imagination is in the service of a literary theory that broke with the classical conception of mímesis.


Without the substitution, creation, fiction or fantasy, the ego could not hold up in the middle of the forces that compose it.


According to Freud, children repeat in their games anything that in their lives have caused a great impression on them and, in this way, they take over the situation. Only by this point of view, you can understand the pleasure of the literary piece. By means of literature, you do the same as children, you write about something that have caused a great impression on you and, in this way, you take over the situation.


I have tried to explain the literary side of psychoanalysis and now I am going to talk about Lacan, another important author of psychoanalysis, who made a reading of Freud’s assumptions. I think that it is important to know another point of view of psychoanalysis, and Lacan can bring us another different vision.


Lacan thinks that it is not only important that the individual recycles the external and internal influences, but that the individual should also lose the contact with anything that did not be the significant or the symbolic order. If the individual is individual, it will be because it has been confined in the fiction of the significant.


Lacan, in his reading of Freud, direct, into its highest consequences, the Freud’s analysis of paranoia and the significant’s transformation. Lacan thinks that when an individual looks for something, this search is determined previously by the significant and it meets with the language’s obstacle ( what it is called by Lacan as the significant’s treasure ), this suppose a deviation from the place where the message is produced, to sanction it and turn it to the code. So, the circuit of signification does not close in the message’s production but it should also wait for the code’s sanction. To assume these premises, suppose changing the notion of unconscious as Freud had formulated it. The unconscious will be now ordered and the fiction will identify with the fiction of the significant.


According to Lacan, psychoanalysis want to put all together and explain any sort of discourse both philosophic and literary.


The real things are outside the individual. The significant circulate freely, creating, as a result, the individual and the reality. Trying to stop the significant is almost impossible. Lacan thinks that the literature permits the significant to circulate freely.


The relationship between philosophy and literature is based on dualities such as true-falsehood, real-fictitious, verifiable-fantastic.


These are more or less the general assumptions of Lacan’s theory. I have mentioned them because they are related to Freud and because I think that it is important to know a different point of view from the Freud’s one, in order to contrast different ideas.


The next part of this paper will consist of an analysis of several books of Freud. Books regarding psychoanalysis whose main ideas I will try to explain.


The first book I want to talk about is La interpretación de los sueños ( I am going to name these books in Spanish because I do not know exactly the translation and I am afraid of changing its signification ). Freud thinks that during the dream, the strength of the conscious decreases but not until the moment that the unconscious could flow as it is. The material flow by means of symbols, masks. So, the unconscious material create another fiction, the fiction of dreams. In this book, Freud observe that the mechanisms used to obtain the fiction are the condensation and displacement, that Lacan will identify with the rhetorical mechanisms of metaphor and metonymy. The dream gives its own interpretation of reality that, in fact, do not coincide with reality, because the unconscious origins, reveal us a substitution of the external reality for the psychic one.


Another book is El chiste y su relación con el inconsciente. In this book, Freud will recognize the condensation and displacement as the most characteristic procedures of the joke’s structure. We have to point out that the joke is an small fiction. The creation of the fiction swamps the Freud’s theory of the individual it creates the ego between the impulses of the id and the superego, it creates the collectivity when it tells jokes, according to Freud, to get a commitment between an impulse discharge and a repetition.


In the book titled Paranoia y neurosis obsesiva, Freud interprets the story of Schreber. Freud only bases himself in the memories written by Schreber. These memories talk about the transformation of doctor Schreber in a woman or in a soul given to God, with whom he maintains an stormy relationship. The analysis that Freud made is interesting because Schreber is a man normal and abnormal at the same time. Schreber suffered a paranoia, but his conduct do not differentiate a lot from the conduct of a poet, novelist or playwright because all of them need to recycle, to create and to substitute, in order to be able to subsist.


In the book called El creador literario y la fantasía, Freud puts in relation the origin of fantasy, the mechanisms of thematic symbolism and the fact that children’s games are poetic creations. These are creations of an own world.


Freud wrote a text La cultura como represión. In this text Freud says that the culture is achieved by repressing the instincts. This repression leads to individual and collective neurosis. In this text, Freud also talks about totemic sacrifice, but I am not going to mention it because I think that it is not important in this paper.


Freud wrote also a text in 108, titled La creación literaria y el sueño despertado, in this text Freud approaches the poet’s work to the game of a child and to the fantasies and ghosts of our dreams.


Finally, I am going to talk about El malestar en la cultura, wrote in the year 10 by Freud. In this book, Freud establishes different points and I am going to sum up the main ideas. The first point is known as La arqueología de los estados previos, it refers to what the child has lived until the age of six. The second point, talks about that the pleasure principle ( principio de placer ) is the most important one because it rules our lives. In another point, Freud establishes that the culture is a sum of institutions that separate us from the animal instinct. In another point, Freud talks about the essential phases in the constitution of the culture. Freud also says that the superego is sadistic and that the ego experiments a necessity of punishment because its conscience dictates it.


To conclude this paper, I am going to talk about some opinions that Freud gave related to literature, seen from the point of view of psychoanalysis, and comments that Freud made regarding some books.


At the end of his life, Freud considered the art and literature with the eyes of a Goethe or a Schopenhauer. The terms condensation, displacement, censorship, etc. result important mechanisms to analyse texts.


The interpretation that an analyst offers of a text, can give us a more cautious and more flexible reading of that text. This reading allows us to know the secret movements of a text, these movements respond to dark affective movements and these made that the analyst gave a rational expression by means of an open interpretation.


With regard to the play of Hamlet, wrote by Shakespeare, Freud thinks that this play is a masterpiece, he thinks that the only one that has solved our trouble about the emotion that this play creates on us is the psychoanalysis. The Oedipus complex has helped to analyse some works, not only Hamlet, but Edipo Rey or El Cid. We can be supported by the Oedipus complex to understand the games of relationships, given in these works, and try to know why the spectator has that emotion when seeing the play. This can corroborate us the seduction of the text.


Freud also made an analysis of the novel of Jensen, titled Gradiva. You can easily see how the psychological content of the novel could seduce Freud. In this novel you will find elements as images, ghosts, figures, dreams, movements, words...These elements enrich a love story, advance and organize themselves according to an axis that correspond to a development of an analytic cure. Freud recognizes that the novelist has a psychiatric capacity. Freud shows that poets and novelists are with regard to the knowledge of the soul, masters of all of us. The interest that this novel has, according to Freud, is that this novel, because of its psychological contents, can be investigated psychoanalyticly.


Another play that Freud analysed was The King Lear of Shakespeare. In this play, the figure of the youngest daughter of the king, Cordelia, has a feature named dumbness. The psychoanalysis of dream shows us that the dumbness is a usual representation of death. So, the figures of dramas and mythological figures are representations of death, according to Freud.


In conclusion, in my opinion, Freud was very intelligent and he was interested not only in psychoanalysis as a therapy but in many other fields where psychoanalysis could be applied. He is a very interesting figure to study.


The most misrepresented Freudian term of all is not really a Freudian term to begin with PHALLUS. Before its possible to understand what Freud originally meant by any of his other theories, an important distinction must be made between a phallus or a phallic object and a penis. Many people think that when Freud discussed the phallus, he was speaking of the penis, and when he discussed the penis he was speaking of the phallus, because the two were the same. Instead, Freud took the word phallus, which means penis or representation of the penis (according to the American Heritage Dictionary, rd ed. 14, Dell) and redefined the term to mean a symbol of power. Freud believed that small children were very caught up in trying to understand why girls dont have penises and boys do, and the penis becomes a first symbol for power and also for lack. Aside from this first phallic object, an actual penis, Freud used the term phallus to mean any symbol or representation of power, in physical reality or in the mind. Though there may have been and may still be men who believe that their penis is a phallus in the sense Freud used the word, they are fundamentally wrong. Freud believed the phallus -- or power structure -- was an imaginary object that no one ever really had except fleetingly. Freud did not believe, in general, that women were worse off because they had no penis (he refers to the vagina as an equally worthy, though much more difficult to see, genital structure) or that they spent their time desiring one. Women were after the symbolic PHALLUS, or power, the same as men, and none of them ever suceeding in acquiring it.


The question of why no one ever has complete power leads nicely into Freuds concept and use of CASTRATION. Freud himself uses the term to mean two seperate things that are related. When speaking of children learning about gender differences, Freud theorizes that when a young boy sees a young girl or even an adult woman and finds no penis on her, it occurs to him that perhaps she used to have one and it was cut off. Even if someone sits the child down and rationally explains to him that girls and boys are different, and he doesnt need to be afraid that his mother or sister had her penis cut off, the explanation occurs after the fear, which occurs immediately upon noticing the lack of the object. Although a young girl does not have the same immediate fear of losing something she has when she notices the existence of the penis, she also recognizes the possibility that since she does not have one and a male does, he could lose it. She proceeds to extrapolate that she could lose other extensions of her body, or perhaps even wonders if she did once have one and has lost it. In his discussions of childrens reflections on gender difference, Freud writes of them considering the concept of actual, physical castration.


Freud held that normal development out of childhood involved this period of considering physical castration and differences between people in general. He believed that in order to recognize differences between oneself and others, starting with ones own gender and the opposite gender, a person had to accept the possibility of difference created by a lack of an object on someones part. After dealing with the physical concept of castration as such, Freud appropriates the term to mean something more symbolic. When children learn about gender difference and accept castration, they accept that they are different than everything else in the world and not in control of it. Adults continually recognize, forget, and rerecognize that they are different than the world and cannot control it. This lack of control, or power, is a lack of the PHALLUS and the reality of CASTRATION. Often, when Freud speaks of someone feeling castrated, he means that they have realized that they are without the symbolic phallus, and without power in their lives. Few people, aside from small children, actually spend their time worrying about real physical castration.


The concept of the acceptance of CASTRATION leading to the recognition of difference between genders, and self and other, leads us to the question What happens to a child who never accepts the possibility of castration (loss)? The answer is that the person gets stuck at an earlier phase of psychosexual development (generally anal or oral) and their lack of belief in castration and gender difference manifests through perversions. Some of the most commonly thrown around terms are sadomasochism and fetishism (Freud also considered homosexuality a perversion, but for slightly different reasons that tie in to his complex analysis of what causes mysogyny) which are often misunderstood and misdefined by the communities that have grown up around them.


The LIBIDO leads into the last Freudian term covered here the OEDIPAL COMPLEX. Even if you havent heard of the Oedipal Complex, youve heard that little boys like their mothers better than their fathers and little girls like their fathers better than their mothers, and sometime just before puberty, it switches and boys like their fathers and girls like their mothers. Anyone looking for this sort of behavior can find a million and one examples of it, whether or not it is actually true, and whether or not Freuds Oedipal Complex really explains it. Freud constructed a model of psychosexual development beginning with the birth of a boy and his attatchment to his mother, or mother-substitute. While he is a newborn, the mothers attention to it is nearly unbroken by any interruption her identity and role in life consists of taking care of the infant and nothing else. She, after a fashion, lives for the child. As time progresses and he is less fragile, and the mother more used to his prescence, so she begins to spend more time with others, including and typically mostly, the father, or a father substitute. Once she is gone, her son understands what it means not to have her complete attention and immediately wants it back. He wants to be everything to her, and seeing what his father is to her -- her lover -- he wants to assume that role in addition to his previous role. Hence the condensation of the Oedipal complex that you will hear all the time He wants to kill his father and marry his mother. Freud outlined a similar process for little girls, involving the father as the figure they desired to marry, but even he admitted the shortcoming of that theory, and later Freudian analysts considering the possibility that all children, male and female, want their mothers sole attention, and want to be their father, at least initially.


Though the Oedipal Complex is represented straightforwardly in pop culture, it has been taken out of its context of normalcy. Freud believed everyone went through the Oedipal Complex, and needed to, in order to resolve many childhood psychosexual issues and grow up at all. Freud did not think that a child who experienced a desire to murder his father and marry his mother was anything except exceptionally ordinary, and any child who avoided the Oedipal phase was doomed never to grow up. In addition to the initial complex, the Oedipal gives rise to a struggle which must be resolved within a family. A little boy, for example, expresses a desire to kill his father and take his fathers place with his mother, and the father responds by saying, No, shes mine, find your own. Eventually, the child associates himself with his father, and rather than attempting to take the mother-substitute his father has found, he goes out to find his own mother-substitute.


Hopefully, these definitions will give a little more insight into the complex philosophy and theory of Freud which has been abandoned by academics and reduced to misconstruction in pop culture. If youre curious and interested in further reading about these terms, here are some recommended texts actually written by Freud.








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