Saturday, April 28, 2012

in the wildblade runnerbrave new world

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Question The experience of the wild exposes and educates


How well is this statement supported by your prescribed texts.


The statement that the experince of the wild exposes and educates is strongly supported by Brave New World (BNW)by Aldous Huxley and Blade Runner by Ridley Scott.


Aldous Huxley has used a contrast in response to convey this message in bnw. In chapter 5 Henry Foster says that it is fine to think that we are still socially useful even after were dead,. Hi is unable to value life more than death. This is a direct result of his conditioning involving hypnopeadia, which is a scientific jagon word used throughout the novel. Henrys seration from the natural rythms of life (those rythms that are portrayed by humans when they are in touch or in constant exposure to the wikd) and the education he is unable to gain from this is highlighted by a contrasting response to death. In chapter 14 the Savages voice [is] trembling with indignation when he reacts to a world that does not value or respect his mothers life. The savages response effectively conveys the natural rythm where by humans are depicted to be emotionally damaged by the loss of the life of a loved one. It is evident that Henry does not feel this emotional response to death because of his conditioning. AS a result he can not learn the value of life.


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Huxley has made specific reference to the scientific manipultion of humn response because there were many scientific experiments being conducted with in his context that involved the manipulation and understanding of humans. For example Ergonomics was popular in europe and Freuds phillosophies were controvercial. Huxley evidently believed this science could lead to the seperation of man from the wild and his consequencial emotions and values.


Huxley uses the symbolic voice of Mostapha Mond to express the value system of his dystopic society. This works effectively as a satircal technique bacuse it is the exzct opposite value system of this society that Huxley is trying to promote and Mostapha Mond gives the responder the clearest deffinition of this societies value system. Mostapha Mond says that sacrifices must be made in his society in order to achieve the desired state of stablilty, it resides in. It is therefore evident that sacrficing mans contact with the wild was not worth the stability it created with in society to Huxley, because of the lessons about particular values it tkes away from society.


Huxley wanted to empasize this point because reaction to the war lead to the League of Nations who world inforce stability. Huxley wanted to warn his society of the sacrifices they would have to make.


Ridley Scott uses symbolism to suggets that the replicants in his film are wild. That is that they respond in a way that nature would require them to. The eye is said to be the eye of the soul. The replicants are detected by movements in their eyes caused by an emotional response. This suggests that they have deep soul driven emotional reactions, which is a natural response. Deckard is exposed to many of these replicants throughout the film. Character response is used effectively in the film to convey Deckards journey of education through his exposure to the replicants. After callously hunting down zhora and shooting zhora Deckard appears to be startled. The responder is forced to recognise Deckards shock as he emotionally responds to his cruelty helping him to realise the value of life. Deckards journey that leads to his full comprhension of the value of life is concluded when Roy who could allow Dechard to fallto his death and who has the motives to do so due to the cruelty to him by Deckard pulls deckard into safety. Roy shows deckard in this instant the value of life that Deckard did not truly percieve. Roy valued Deckards life probably more than Deckard did.


Ridley Scott portrays this learning from commercial products because he wanted to alert the people of his context that they were becoming too concerned with commercial profit. Commercial profit value systems are depicted with reagonism. Ridleys Scott needed it known that we should never become so obsessed with profots that we need to be retaught the values learnt from nature because we have destroyed it.


It is evident both texts BNW and Br support the statemant that The experience of the wild exposes and educates,.


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Friday, April 27, 2012

representation of street kids

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Discuss the ways in which street kids are represented in the texts “ kids on the rampage” and “father Riley”. Include in your discussion the way in which tests can influence your understanding and appreciation of the issues in either text.


The feature current affairs stories “ Kids on the rampage” and “Father Riley” both represent street kids through the selection of television codes and elements, as well as the main storyline. The way the kids are depicted, however, are in two completely different ways. The kids in “Kids on the rampage” are depicted as rude, disrespectful and a menace to communities. The kids on “Father Riley” are represented as good country kids, who have just had a bad past life, trying to be back on the right track. The now country kids, who were once drug using, smoking and abusive street kids are viewed by the audience as decent hard- working kids and the street kids of the city have been represented as menacing out of control brats. The image the kids bring with them is also reflected on their living areas; the country kids make the country look like a peaceful and harm free community, and the city kids present our cities as violence filled and unsafe.


The street kids in “Kids on the rampage” were depicted as bad and community disrupting from the choice of footage and language used to represent them. The presenter used very strong wordings of offensive descriptions towards the kids, which influences the decision of the audience. To further support the stories side against these kids, they show them destroying the camera of one of their crewmembers, and kicking him. This footage is shown over and over to keep the acts of the kids in the audience’s mind. Footage of the rental home they occupied is shown, to further highlight the destructiveness of the street kids. The rental owner tells the reporter her story of how they trashed the home, and had not even payed the last one and a half years of rent. She looked angry and distraught as the camera captures her reactions to seeing the house the way it is. The house is full of “dishes with rotting dishes” and syringes in the couches, with graffiti on all the walls. There is no room to move on the floor pilled with rubbish and obscure objects. The audience supports the lady, and feels for her when they see how upset and angry she is and further condemn the kids. There is a lot of angry rock music playing in the background of the story, which reflects on the kids’ behaviour.


The Message conveyed through the story is that our cities are becoming filled with menacing, and destructing kids who use drugs and have no respect for our communities. The kids are implied to be dangerous and very unfriendly towards members of society. The story creates strong views in the audience to fight against street kids, and to remove street kids like this from our community will make it safe and happy for everyone.


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The kids in “Father Riley” however are presented as good kids, who have just needed some help to get them of the streets. The presenter had a one on one conversation with the kids, who seemed more than happy to have his company. They could express their saddening stories to the camera, and the audience sympathised with them. They were under supervision of Father Riley who, being a Christian priest, is respected well by our society. The priest who says they have “more courage than any other kids” graces them with lots of complementing encouragement. The views of the country seem peaceful, showing the lush green land with the donated cattle which the kids are working hard to muster. The kids appear to be very hard working, and the audience respects that. The audience also respects the way they are turning over a new leaf to make a new life for themselves. The music is happy and bouncy, creating a very pleasant and more accepting atmosphere to the angry music played in “kids on the rampage”. The priest tells how he has had to “bury three of his kids” and the audience feels very sorry and supporting towards the other kids. They are “learning how to do things for one another” and the audience realises that it was their own choice to start a new life, and it was their own determination, with the support of Father Riley, that got them there.


Instead of the audience seeing the street kids as bad and community ruining, as in “kids on the rampage” they see Father Riley’s kids as kids who are very decent and genuine who are willing to get back on the right track with some help from our community. However it is portraying or city as street kids yielding, and unhelping towards these kids who need help. Audiences see the country as a loving and supporting country whom are willing to help these kids, unlike our cities.


The way that each of the stories “Kids on the rampage” and “Father Riley” convey their messages and issues is through the use of television elements such as tone and language choice, footage choice and music. These Television elements can create a very strong view which depending on the effectiveness of the way it is put across can have a great impact on audiences. It can cause audiences to have that same opinion on the issues presented, and support or dislike certain people, groups, occupations and acts, or places that appear in the story.





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Marble Chips / Hydrochloric Acid

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Rates of Reaction Marble Chips and Hydrochloric Acid


Rates of Reaction


PLANNING


AIM


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To find if changing the concentration of an acid will increase or decrease the rate of the reaction when marble is dissolved in hydrochloric acid.


PREDICTION


When the concentration of acid increases, more gas will be given off faster. I know this from my trial experiments.


METHOD


Since I will be working with strong acid, I will wear safety goggles while conducting the experiment.


I will use Marble chips all of a small size. I can use a sieve to make sure they are all roughly similar size- about 7mm diameter.


The amount of acid I have decided on is 10ml. And so the amount of marble must be in excess - g.


I can measure the speed of the reaction by how much gas is given off. I can measure this in cm in a gas syringe. When the experiment takes place, I will take the reading every 10 second to get a good graph for the results. If the reaction goes very quickly, I will take the readings every five seconds.


To be sure I can rely on my results I will repeat he experiment twice or three times if necessary, because there is chance of inaccurate results for many reasons.


I learnt from the trial experiments that it is quite hard to start a stopwatch, pour acid and stick a bung into a boiling tube all at the same time, so I will get someone to assist me while doing so.


If the experiment goes on for a ridiculous time, I will cut it off. I dont think it is necessary to have the experiment go over three minutes, so I will cut it off then. Also, if the amount of gas goes off the scale I will stop it there.


It is important to keep the starting temperatures constant for all the reactions as this can affect the results by giving the particles more energy (and making it faster).


Analysis of Results.


From the experiment, I have found that an increased concentration of acid increases the rate of the reaction.


I think that the best way of displaying these results is by drawing a line graph. In it, I have used the average of the two sets of results. The pattern I can see is that when the reaction first starts, the reaction is fastest, from then on, the reaction slows. We can see this because the gradient of the curve is steepest at the beginning.


The cause of this curve is that at the start of the reaction, there is the most ammount of acid molecules that are colliding with the marble. (I can draw this from my initial hypothesis)


OBTAINING EVIDENCE


TABLE of RESULTS


Concentration of Acid. Time 10 0 0 40 50 60 70 80


0.5 15 0 5 8 0 4 6 7 8


0.5 14 8 8 41 44 47 48 50


1 8 48 58 67 7 8 7 100 105


1 0 40 54 64 7 81 86 10


40 60 76 0 100


8 55 74 8 100


0 44 70 85 110


0 6 0 110


4 7 115


4 0 65 87 110


During the experiment, I kept the starting temperature constant at degrees.


I stop watch to time the experiment.


I wore safety glasses.


Time is in seconds. Concentration is in morality..


I repeated the experiment twice to make sure my results were reliable.





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Thursday, April 26, 2012

Agrarian Life

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Travel back to a period of simplified everyday life, when candles were considered luxury items and grocery stores were nonexistent. Agrarian farmers built their entire houses without store bought materials, and survived off of only what they produced. Children were seen as workers, not as an extra expense, and played a major role in production. The question is, why would someone want to live this primitive life in an age of growing industrialization?. For the Southern Agrarians, farming was a spiritual practice that was seen as the only occupation that allowed people to live free. They believed that industry and trade made one dependent on a boss, and caused greedy personalties. As generally self-sufficient people, small farmers had little use or interest in economic development. The ideas of factories and mass production caused national excitement that turned Agrarian ideals into a minority belief. The struggle to maintain traditional values and expose industry as a form of evil is expressed by Andrew Nelson Lytle in “The Hind Tit,” while Wayne Gard defends the advantages of industrialization in “Agriculture’s Industrial Revolution.” Both articles convey strong arguments, each supporting the viewpoints over the debated issue of Agrarian versus Industrialization.


“The Hind Tit” is an attempt by an Agrarian farmer in the 10s, to use morality in order to persuade those blinded by the temptation of possible wealth to take a closer look at the negative side of industrialization. Lytle attacks the claims that machines are more beneficial in farming by saying “But since a power machine is ultimately dependent upon human control, the issue presents an awful spectacle men, run mad by their inventions, supplanting themselves with inanimate objects. This is, to of follow the matter to its conclusion, a moral and spiritual suicide, foretelling an actual physical destruction”(0). He also acknowledges the slogans that were being forced into the heads of farmers at the time, such as “Industrialize the farm; be progressive; drop old fashion ways and adopt scientific methods”(04). Lytle’s response to these anti-Agrarian words is “These slogans are powerfully persuasive and should be, but are not, regarded with the most deliberate circumspection, for under the guise of strengthening the farmer in his way of life they are advising him to abandon it and become absorbed”(04). On the allures of the luxuries one can acquire from the wealth of industrialization, Lytle asserts that the agrarian farmer would lose the already established fortune of life. He says, “They also tell him that he (meaning his family) deserves motor-cars, picture shows, chain store dresses for the women-folks, and all the articles in Sears-Roebuck catalogues. By telling him how great is his deserving, they prepare the way to deprive him of his natural deserts”(06). Also, Lytle tries to appeal to the reader by painting a picture of daily life as an Agrarian farmer by highlighting a family bond. He explains each persons duty and how the process is dependent on teamwork. Lytle ends his argument by saying “Any man who grows his own food, kills his own meat, takes wool from his lambs and cotton from his stalks and makes them into clothes, plants corn and hay for his stock, shoes them at the cross roads blacksmith shop, draws milk and butter from his cows, eggs from his pullets, water from the ground, and fuel from the woodlot, can live in an industrial world without a great deal of cash”(44).


As a farmer struggling with the industrialization issue, I would have been compelled to preserve the Agrarian lifestyle after reading this article. The clever language used to portray industrialists, such as “false prophets”(06), is more convincing then simply calling someone a liar. He speaks with urgency in his voice, causing the reader to feel that it is their responsibility to take action. Also, the use of analogies to compare the farmer turned industrialist, with a craftsman throwing away his tools, is a proficient way to demonstrate the aftermath of taking on modern methods (06). Lytle is writing to male farmers who are all in the same predicament. For this reason, he does not censor his words out of concern with offending the other side. Also, the fact that he is living the life he boasts, and shows extreme knowledge on being successful, gives the author confirmed credibility.


Wayne Gard uses specific examples and the opinions of others to prove industrialization’s inevitable control over the farmer’s industry if they do not modernize. In a study to compare corporation farms to individual farms, Gard states, “This study showed that the large-scale farms had advantages in superior management, more efficient utilization of machinery, specialization of labor, buying and selling in whole sale quantities and, in some cases, reduction of overhead expense”(854). Gard assumes that the pure accomplishments of larger farms should convince people like Andrew Lytle to change their lifestyles. He states “ . . . some individual corporation farms have succeeded to an extent that greatly alarms their opponents and encourages those who as soon as possible would shift farming to a factory basis”(855). However, though clearly in favor of the benefits, Gard acknowledges the view point of those who do not. He quotes President Hoover during his acceptance speech of the republican nomination in 18 by saying he “assured the nation that farming must continue to be an individualistic businesses of small units and independent ownership”(856). He also quotes the pro-industrialist Henry Ford “The moment the farmer considers himself as an industrialist with a horror of waste either in materials or in men, then we are going to have farm products so low priced that all will have enough to eat, and the profits will be so satisfactory that the farming will be considered as among the least hazardous and most profitable occupations”(857). Gard basically feels that “To affect lower production cost there must be more highly industrialized farming, if not corporation farming”(857).


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Wayne Gard, however clearly not as passionate on the issues as Andrew Lytle, provides sufficient evidence that the world is coming to depend more and more on the interests of industrialization. In 11, this article was written for a public newspaper, causing the author to remain open minded in order to appeal to all readers. Using arguments based on proven experiments makes the benefits of industrialization undeniable. Also, choosing to quote prominent role models of the time allows his reasons to be more charming. When compared with “The Hind Tit,” it is clear that “Agriculture’s Industrial Revolution” was written more for reporting purposes, rather than to promote rebellion.


Once just a growing popular idea, industrialization now influences our everyday life. There are very few people today who are able to make a profit off of a small farm, and even those who are successful, rarely decide to be completely self sufficient the way the Agrarians were. In the past, America has been criticized and called a ‘corporacracy’ for allowing large corporations to gain too much power. With large scale corruption such as Enron, and terrorist attacks for our evil modern ways, it’s possible to think that maybe the Agrarians were right.





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Importance Of Leadership in Organisations

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INTRODUCTION


There is explicit connection between management and leadership quality and economic performance - the link between the two should be tracked over time in order to achieve continuous progress.


An effective organizational leadership accounts for most of the success stories of business firms and companies worldwide. Much of a company’s success or failure rests on the kind of management capability and strategy that a company employs. However, an alarming report by the Council for Excellence in Management and Leadership found out that, “supply of and demand for management and leadership capability in the UK finds that current management and business leadership development is a dysfunctional system, and that the UKs economic performance is being held back by a shortage of appropriate and practical leadership skills” (Council for Excellence in Management & Leadership).


The report is the culmination of two years of wide-ranging consultation and analysis across the UKs public and private sectors and the professions. It says that while there is a consensus that good management and leadership skills are pivotal to quality of performance, investment, productivity and delivery of service in all enterprises, these business-enhancing capabilities are not as widespread as they should be in the UK.


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The UK market shows that retailing is the UKs top service sector industry, employing around .4 million people in the UK. Its turnover rose from just over 80 billion in 184 to 175 billion in 18. With the continuing development of cross-border franchising, some of the UKs world-class companies have seen considerable success in overseas markets, particularly in Central Europe. Overseas outlets of UK stores provide excellent shop windows for UK products. Many retailers are expanding internationally and in a variety of ways including franchising, acquisition and joint ventures (www.tradepartners.gov.uk).


Another sector that is fast growing and is considered to be one of the three largest sectors in UK is the management consultation business. There are estimated to be between 0,000 and 5,000 management consultants in the UK. Annual turnover by the UKs management consultancy firms is around 5.5 billion, of which exports account for 1 billion. The bulk of international work by UK firms is in Europe, but as most export work is both market and client led, there are also opportunities in the emerging economies of Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America, India and China, and especially in the fast-growing energy, insurance and electronics sectors. There is also continued demand for UK consultancy overseas - e.g. project management, and assisting governments implement deregulation/privatisation programmes (www.tradepartners.gov.uk).


This study will attempt to tackle the strategy, issues and challenges faced on organizational leadership by two retail firms and one management consultancy company. A comparative analysis between the three firms will be discussed in the context of their success in expanding and growing domestically and internationally. Further, this paper will work on the hypothesis that organizational leadership leads to faster company growth.


Conceptual Framework


This paper will use the comparative approach in determining, analyzing and evaluating the organizational leadership methods of three companies. The comparative approach will substantially explain the differences/similarities, strengths/weaknesses and explain the causes of such.


This paper will specifically use three companies as case studies, all of which is based in the UK


A major part of the retail industry, worth over 100 billion. Although still primarily selling food, the largest companies are diversifying into non-food products. Nine retailers account for around 60% of sales





16.5% Tesco - Tesco has some 700 stores. Its e-retailing arm, Tesco.com was promoted heavily some four years ago and currently receives 70,000 orders per week, over 50% of online grocery sales in the UK. It is currently working with a leading US supermarket to deliver groceries in California. The team overseeing its development is based at the firm’s headquarters in Welwyn Garden City. Analytical skills are particularly sought for head office roles, as opposed to team working and leadership skills for store-based positions.


.1% Waitrose - Waitrose is the food arm of the John Lewis Partnership, with 16 stores, mostly in the South of England. Employees are partners, which means they receive a share of the profits each year and contribute to the decision-making process. Waitrose has acquired a 40% stake in Ocado, to provide an internet service to its customers.


The Red Bridge Consultancy is a modern communications company. It provides creative thinking, considered advice and high quality writing and design for on- and offline internal and external communications. The company was created by Mike Hooker, a graphic designer, and Paul Wigmore, an ex-Fleet Street journalist. They first established their professional working relationship, and their mutual love of stodgy puddings and custard, when they ran the award-winning design and publishing unit for a top London PR consultancy.


These three companies will be instrumental in the findings and conclusion of this paper.


Statement of the Problem


An effective organizational leadership has been the goal of almost all companies in order to maximize their resources not only in terms of financial capital but also human and customer-valuation capital. Furthermore, growth is highly dependent on this factor.


This paper seeks to answer the following questions


1. What are the different strategies, methods and plans of Tesco, Waitrose and Red Bridge Consultancy in dealing with organizational leadership?


. How are these three companies able to come up with these organizational strategies? What are the improvements/changes from the companies’ previous strategies?


. How significant are the differences of strategy between the three firms taken in the context of the nature of their businesses, in relation to their success (profitability and long-term investments) and in expanding globally?


4. How can organizational leadership affect the company in general and how potent is it in guaranteeing the success of the company?


Hypothesis


This paper works on the following hypothesis


1. Organisational Leadership is directly proportional to the growth (share of the market) of a company


. Conversely, the decline of a company is inversely proportional to organizational leadership


. Effective organizational leadership has a significant correlation to economic growth


Scope and Delimitation


This paper will only cover the three UK-based companies Tesco, Waitrose and Red Bridge Consultancy in the discussion and analysis of organizational leadership. The conclusions derived from this study are limited to the three companies studied and generalizations inferred will be based on the information from these findings. Review of Related Literature will be limited to scholarly works from 10 to the present; however, sources on the theoretical framework will be exempted. Data will be primarily contained on the selected firms used for the study.


Significance of the Study


This research seeks to contribute on the growing literature on organizational leadership by using case study as the primary source of data and by using a comparative analysis on the three companies based in UK. Moreover, the need for stronger management and leadership abilities will increase as the pace of change heats up, and as consumers and other stakeholders demand better performance, from professional practitioners as well as major corporations and the public sector. The implication is that much of the money spent on management training - both in the public and private sectors and in the professions - has little impact on outputs. Thus, according to the report, the MBA degree has succeeded as a qualification but has not necessarily developed future leaders. As a complement to more formal business education, the report lays emphasis on the value of informal development and mentoring practices, as an additional means of assisting time-poor entrepreneurs, in both larger and smaller companies, in their search for practical and relevant management skills (Council for Excellence in Management & Leadership, 00).


This paper will reconcile the importance of a formal training in the schools and private practice by discussing the personalities behind the three companies. This paper seeks to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the organizational methods and strategies of firms, the factors for employing such methods, the relationship of growth and organizational leadership and its impact on the economy.


SOURCES


Council for Excellence in Management & Leadership, Management and Leadership in the UK, 14 May, 00


www.tradepartners.org.uk





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Wednesday, April 25, 2012

a christmas story

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The old woman is a guilty of putting Buddy in danger because she is mentally ill, does not expose Buddy to the outside world, and puts Buddy is dangerous situations. This could be a major threat to Buddy and his life growing up because the old woman does not teach Buddy proper manners as a child.


One way that shows the old woman is mentally ill, is that she gives Buddy two tablespoons of whiskey. A child of seven! Whiskey on his breath! Are you out of your mind? Feeding a child of seven must be loony! Since Buddy is far from the drinking age, he has witnessed a big mistake in the old womans behavior, giving a child alcohol. By killing a rattlesnake with a hoe is another way of proving this woman is a very bad influence on Buddy. Killed with a hoe the biggest rattlesnake ever seen in this country (sixteen rattles). The old woman is a mentalcase for taking on a snake with only a hoe infront of Buddy. The old woman is not able to control her emotions. This could cause major harm in Buddys life because when people are upset you never know what they might do. Dont cry, dont cry. Buddy sits next to the old woman in the bed and tickles her feet, telling her that everything will be okay. By giving Buddy whiskey, killing a snake with only a hoe, and not being able to control her emotions is a danger in Buddys childhood because when he grows up he will not have proper ways to live his life by the mistakes the old woman has made.


The old woman is guilty of putting Buddy in danger by not exposing him to the outside world. The old woman is not social at all. ...My friend is shy with everyone except strangers that these strangers, are merest acquaintances, seem to be our true friends? Obviously, the old woman does not leave the house very often and has no real friends. Having poor people skills is dangerous to Buddy. This is a danger because later in life Buddy will not know any proper skills in meeting new people and will end up lonely like the old woman. ...merest acquaintances, seem to be our true friends? The old woman bakes fruitcakes for strangers who she claims to be her friends. The old woman lives a very boring life. ...Weve thirty cakes to bake. The highlight of the old womans year is baking fruitcakes for strangers. Not exposing Buddy to the outside world is a major threat to Buddys life because he will never learn good people skills.


The old woman is guilty because she exposes Buddy to dangerous situations. One situation that Buddy should not have been involved in was visiting Mr. Haha. ...its Mr. Haha Jones himself! This is a bad place for Buddy to be with the old woman. Another bad situation Buddy is in, is when the old woman leaves the stove on. ...My how foolish I am! and my friend cries, suddenly alert, like a woman remembering too late she has buscuits in the oven. The stove could have started a fire in the home where Buddy and the old woman stay. The old woman is easily excited about everything. Buddy, are you awake? Well, I cant sleep a hoot, she declares. My mind is jumping like a jack rabbit. The old woman gets more excited about Christmas than Buddy, and you do not know what the old woman will do. The old woman exposes Buddy to many dangerous situations that can harm Buddy in many ways.


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There is proof that the old woman is a major threat to Buddy. From Buddy living with the old woman for an extended period of time is a big risk, although the two have managed, some of the decisions the old woman makes is dangerous to Buddys health. Also, throughout the time together the old woman has taught Buddy some good lessons but since the decisions the old woman made were so terrible to be exposed to a young child, she is guilty for child endangerment and should have to give up custody of Buddy.


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A Mom for all TImes

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Personal qualities are the characteristics that make a person unique. Obviously, not all personal qualities are admirable. Personal qualities can be quirky or even annoying, which neither makes them admirable or not admirable. An admirable quality is not necessarily one that one would like to imitate; it can simply be a quality that one finds interesting or appealing. In Dillard’s story, she identifies many qualities her mother possesses that she admires.


Dillard’s mother has a fascination for words and speech patterns. The phrase “Terwilliger Bunts One” particularly intrigued her, and she made it her own. She would cut clips from reels of talk and play them back at leisure. It delighted her to find a different regionalism. Dillard admires this trait. She reminisces positively about this aspect of her mother’s personality, remembering only the humorous moments.


Dillard’s mother is a wise guy who delights in the interchange whether or not people fall for her conversational gambit. “Anyone who met her verbal challenges she adored (p. 150).” When she had eye surgery, she asked her doctor if she would be able to play the piano, and was thrilled when the doctor rose to the occasion by replying, “You won’t pull that old one on me (p. 150).” Dillard clearly appreciates this quality in her mother; it almost seems she would want to be like this herself. Her light tone in relating the stories combine with a total absence of anything approaching disapproval convey this message.


Dillard’s mother is a practical joker who loves schemes. When a phone call turned out to be a wrong number, she would have one of her daughters pretend to be the person called and make every attempt to confuse the party on the other end of the line (p. 151). Dillard found this a useful training both in quick thinking and in ethical decision. “But did you want to perform well as Cecile, or did you want to take pity on the wretched caller? (p. 151)”


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Dillard’s mother takes claims to authority lightly and tries to inculcate the same spirit in her children. She loved to fluster people by abandoning a game’s rules. She moved checkers around on the board if her opponent was not looking. In card games she would play out of turn, show her hand, or at times simply toss her cards behind her back. This would absolutely drive people crazy (pp. 151-15). This particular practice of hers seems to be one which Dillard does not wish to possess but finds amusing nonetheless. Some things are funny once. This is one of them.


There is another side to her mother’s disregard for authority; a side which Dillard finds admirable. She was willing to espouse unpopular opinions simply because she believed that they were right and good. “She was scathingly sarcastic about the McCarthy hearings while they took place…she frequently opposed Father’s wait-and-see calm. ‘We don’t know enough about it,’ he said. ‘I do,’ she said. ‘I know all I need to know’ .” Dillard’s mother taught her daughters that they should take a stand against injustices and madness. Dillard very much admires this particular quality. She writes about this with a great deal of respect in her tone.


Dillard admires many of her mother’s personal qualities. Some of these she herself would like to possess. Dillard seems at times to be slightly ambivalent as to whether her mother’s qualities are admirable, but overall, there is nothing but respect and admiration present in her tone.





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Tuesday, April 24, 2012

The story of me

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The story of my life. I was born in Hillsboro Texas on December 1, 184. I have two older sisters. We fought all the time and they were very mean to me. I hope that if some one reads this they will know that I didnt really have an essay, so I am very very sorry. I am 18 now and married. I have a two year old daughter and am expecting another baby. The new baby is due on May 0, 004. I am very excited. I like basketball, softball, track, volleyball, cross country, and powerlifting. This essay has to be 50 words long. That is not so bad. One time I could only write 100 words for a scholarship and it was hard for me to limit myself to only 100 words. I work in a library and it is very boring. My dad is a farmer and my mom is a teacher. Well, she was until she found out that she was not cut out for it. I am just mumbling right now. I have a test in government tomorrow. I plan to study for it during my lunch break. like her guidance counselor and through her own strength. Essay Text (copy and paste your essay into the box below)Essay Bibliography (leave it blank if you dont have one)We require that you submit one of your own papers. is helps findfreeessays.com grow and add new papers!


All data submitted becomes the property of findfreeessays.com and you give up all legal rights to it! We only accept original papers, do not submit copyrighted material! The story of my life. I was born in Hillsboro Texas on December 1, 184. I have two older sisters. We fought all the time and they were very mean to me. I hope that if some one reads this they will know that I didnt really have an essay, so I am very very sorry. I am 18 now and married. I have a two year old daughter and am expecting another baby. The new baby is due on May 0, 004. I am very excited. I like basketball, softball, track, volleyball, cross country, and powerlifting. This essay has to be 50 words long. That is not so bad. One time I could only write 100 words for a scholarship and it was hard for me to limit myself to only 100 words. I work in a library and it is very boring. My dad is a farmer and my mom is a teacher. Well, she was until she found out that she was not cut out for it. I am just mumbling right now. I have a test in government tomorrow. I plan to study for it during my lunch break. like her guidance counselor and through her own strength. Essay Text (copy and paste your essay into the box below)Essay Bibliography (leave it blank if you dont have one)We require that you submit one of your own papers. is helps findfreeessays.com grow and add new papers!


All data submitted becomes the property of findfreeessays.com and you give up all legal rights to it! We only accept original papers, do not submit copyrighted material!





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ebay's success

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EBAY IN 00 THE CHALLENGES OF SUSTAINED GROWTH.


eBay is the world’s online marketplace™. Founded in 15, eBay created a powerful platform for the sale of goods and services by a passionate community of individuals and businesses. On any given day, there are millions of items across thousands of categories for sale on eBay. eBay enables trade on a local, national and international basis with customized sites in markets around the world.


In 15, eBay created the first online person-to-person trading community on the Internet. Today, eBay is the worlds leading e-commerce web site with nearly 4 million items for sale in over 4,000 categories ranging from coins and stamps to toys and antiques. Every day, users around the country and the world list approximately 500,000 items on our site to sell.


Being the worlds leading e-commerce web site poses a great many challenges for eBay. Not the least among them is the daily challenge of protecting our web site from attack, abuse and misuse by hackers, database pirates and pranksters.


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As you undoubtedly have heard, last week eBay, Yahoo, eTrade, CNN and other well known e-commerce sites were victims of an insidious organized attack that shut down portions of their web sites. At eBay, the principal attack occurred at approximately oclock on February 8th and blocked legitimate access to eBays site for nearly 0 minutes. That attack was followed by a second attack on our site the next day, which we were effectively able to fend off within a few minutes.


Let me explain why these attacks are so serious. This attack fundamentally disrupted business on our nations key e-commerce sites for several days. Although we dont yet know who was behind this attack, it was obviously well planned and aimed directly at leading commercial web sites, such as ours. As we understand the facts, nefarious computer code was serpitiously planted in the computers of unsuspecting individuals and institutions, such as the University of California at Santa Barbara. These computers were then used to launch a sustained attack on leading web sites. The purpose of the attack was to block access to portions of these web sites by bombarding them with a huge volume of what is known as ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) traffic. This attack bombarded eBay with over 1 billion bits per second of bad traffic, nearly double eBays normal incoming traffic. This flood of bad traffic effectively blocked legitimate traffic from reaching our home page.


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eBay is the worlds largest personal online trading community. eBay created a new market efficient one-to-one trading in an auction format on the Web.


Individuals-not big businesses-use eBay to buy and sell items in more than 1,600 categories, including collectibles, antiques, sports memorabilia, computers, toys, Beanie Babies, dolls, figures, coins, stamps, books, magazines, music, pottery, glass, photography, electronics, jewelry, gemstones, and much more. Users can find the unique and the interesting on eBay-everything from chintz china to chairs, teddy bears to trains, and furniture to figurines.


As the leading person-to-person trading site, buyers are compelled to trade on eBay due to the large amount of content available. Similarly, sellers are attracted to eBay to conduct business where there are the most buyers. We provide over two million new auctions, and 50,000 new items every day from which users may choose.


Our Mission


We help people trade practically anything on earth.


eBay was founded with the belief that people are honest and trustworthy. We believe that each of our customers, whether a buyer or a seller, is an individual who deserves to be treated with respect.


We will continue to enhance the online trading experiences of all our constituents-collectors, hobbyists, small dealers, unique item seekers, bargain hunters, opportunistic sellers, and browsers. The growth of the eBay community comes from meeting and exceeding the expectations of these special people.


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eBay and AutoTrader.coms Recently Launched co-branded Automobile Site To Feature Services From Saturn, escrow.com, E-LOAN, Dependable Auto Shippers and Hagerty


SAN JOSE, Calif., June 1, 000 - eBay (NASDAQ EBAY; www.ebay.com), the worlds leading person-to-person online trading community, is teaming up with Saturn and its retailers to provide a nationwide automobile inspection service. The new inspection service, to be developed and offered by Saturn, is slated to be part of eBay and AutoTrader.coms recently launched co-branded automobile site, which can be accessed through eBay or www.ebay-autotrader.com. eBay and Saturn plan to implement a program that offers most used vehicle sellers on the eBay and AutoTrader.com co-branded site the opportunity to purchase a comprehensive inspection that millions of potential buyers can view online.


The eBay and AutoTrader.com co-branded site already includes services designed to deliver car buyer peace-of-mind and ease the online transaction process through integrated escrow, finance, insurance options and shipping services � from escrow.com, E-LOAN, Dependable Auto Shippers (DAS) and Hagerty Classic Insurance.


The site is expected to include the following features, some available today with others planned to be added in the near future


· A proposed new feature for the site is expert vehicle inspection services from participating Saturn retailers nationwide � so that buyers will be able to purchase a vehicle online with even more confidence. Under the program being developed, participating Saturn retailers will inspect used vehicles from most makers and deliver the award-winning customer service the company pioneered in the automobile market.


· Escrow services and transaction management from escrow.com, allowing buyers to view and inspect their purchased automobile before providing payment. With this feature, currently available on the site, buyers can deposit their payment for a vehicle in a secure trust account and, if the buyer is satisfied with the vehicle, they can authorize the release of funds to the seller.


· Competitive financing options from E-LOAN. Providing quotes from five leading national lenders, E-LOANs financing options allow buyers to quickly and easily get a loan to purchase a used car, offering some of the lowest rates in the industry and online approvals. E-LOAN provides financing for buyers who purchase cars from individuals and car dealerships. Now up and running on the site, this is the first time auto financing has been offered as part of person-to-person transactions at eBay.


· Safe, secure and prompt shipping services are currently available from DAS, bringing even more cars within the reach of buyers. Since 154, DAS has been providing affordable vehicle relocation services throughout America and abroad. A leader in the privately owned vehicle relocation market, the company has recently invested over $ million in a state-of-the-art, satellite tracked fleet of transports. DAS delivers affordable shipping for nearly every type of used vehicle and, through its association with specialty carrier Passport, also provides shipping for high-end, exotic and antique cars - helping eBay buyers bring the car of their dreams within easy reach.


· Affordable collector car insurance from Hagerty Classic Insurance. Specializing in classic car insurance for antique and vintage autos, modified and custom cars, and exotic automobiles, Hagerty provides comprehensive coverage at low rates. Available today, classic car buyers on the site can save hundreds of dollars on their insurance by working with a company that understands how classic cars are driven, housed and maintained.


· New automobile search features, including search by make, model, year and location - all delivered in a striking, fun, easy-to-use web page that navigates the car buyers and sellers through the online auction format.


We are constantly striving to enhance transaction safety and convenience on our co-branded site with AutoTrader.com, and are excited about adding Saturn and our other great service providers as part of this effort, said Simon Rothman, vice president and general manager for eBays automobile business. eBay is popularizing the online auction format for everything automotive, giving anyone looking for a used vehicle new levels of control over what they pay and sellers access to eBays vibrant community of active buyers.


eBay launched a dedicated automobile area � for collector cars, general used cars, spare parts, and automobilia � on its site in August 1, following a groundswell of auto listings from its community members and the companys purchase of Kruse International, the worlds largest collector car auction house. Since then, eBays automobile category has grown exponentially and now accounts for over 5 percent of the value of the merchandise listed on the site. In March 000 the company announced a long-term alliance with AutoTrader.com, to create the Internets largest auction-style marketplace to buy and sell used cars.


About eBay


eBay (www.ebay.com), the worlds personal trading community, pioneered person-to-person online trading. Founded in 15, eBay has developed an efficient and entertaining trading site on the Web that is available 4 hours a day, seven days a week. eBay has more than 1 million registered users. More than 500,000 items are added daily in more than 4,00 categories, including antiques; automotive; books, movies and music; coins and stamps; collectibles; computers; dolls and figures; jewelry and gemstones; photos and electronics; pottery and glass; sports memorabilia; and toys.


About AutoTrader.com


AutoTrader.com (www.autotrader.com), the worlds largest used car marketplace, fundamentally improves the way people buy and sell cars by providing a comprehensive source of credible information and a selection of more than 1.5 million used vehicles for sale. AutoTrader.com is the exclusive online distributor of the automotive listings contained in the Auto Trader® and AutoMart® print magazines published by Trader Publishing Company. These magazines are distributed in more than 16,000 retail outlets with an estimated weekly circulation of .5 million copies. AutoTrader.com is also the exclusive online distributor of used car listings data collected by Manheim Auctions, Inc. and the Dealer Services Group of Automatic Data Processing, Inc. (NYSE AUD). AutoTrader.coms investors include Cox Enterprises, Inc., Manheim Auctions, Inc., Landmark Communications, Inc., the Dealer Services Group of Automatic Data Processing, Inc., and Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers.


About Saturn Corporation


Saturn Corporation entered the automotive market in 10, bringing a new level of customer service to automotive retailing. Saturns first products - the compact SL sedan, SW wagon and SC coupe - featured innovations such as space-frame construction and dent resistant polymer body panels. Saturn recently introduced the worlds first and only three-door coupe, followed in 1 by a new line of mid-size cars, the L-Series. Saturn was created through a unique partnership between General Motors and the UAW. Saturn and its retailers, represented by over 45 facilities, share a strong focus on customer service, a focus that is an integral part of Saturns e-commerce initiatives. For more information on Saturn and its products, please visit www.saturn.com.


Forward Looking Statement


Statements in this press release that relate to future plans, objectives, expectations, performance, events, and the like are forward looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 15 and Securities Exchange Act of 14. Future events, risks, and uncertainties, individually and in the aggregate, could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in these statements. The factors include but are not limited to timing and costs associated with developing the programs referenced above; user acceptance of the new site and features; speed and success of the development and integration efforts; adoption by Saturn retailers; effects of the YK problem; the Internet in general and the economy; general economic conditions; and other factors discussed in the Forward Looking Information, Risk Factors or Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations sections included in the companys prospectuses, registration statements on Form S-1, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and annual reports on Form 10-K.


http//www.autotrader.com/about/pressroom/media/pressrelease_detail.jtmpl?article_id=1000&ac_afflt=none


The History


eBay was conceived initially as a result of a conversation between Pierre Omidyar and his wife, an avid Pez™ collector (she currently covets a collection of more than 400 dispensers). She commented to Pierre how great it would be if she were able to collect Pez dispensers and interact with other collectors over the Internet.


As an early Internet enthusiast, Pierre knew that people needed a central location to buy and sell unique items and to meet other users with similar interests. He started eBay to fulfill this need.


Pierre launched eBay on Labor Day in September 15.


Since Yahoo had been attacked the day before, eBay had already started to prepare several countermeasures. When the attack began, we quickly took a number of steps to fight back. Initially, we put in a number of our own fire walls to repel the bad traffic, but the volume of that traffic was so heavy that the fire walls were ineffective. Quickly, we turned to our Internet Service Providers (ISPs), whose lines were bringing this bad traffic to our site. We worked with these providers to develop filtering mechanisms to prevent bad traffic from even reaching our site. Within 0


minutes, the filter effectively stopped the bad traffic and allowed our site to return to normal service, even though the attack itself continued for an additional 0 minutes.


The next day, a similar attack was launched against eBay at about 50 p.m. With our experience from the previous day and with a number of countermeasures already in place, eBay and its ISPs were able to quickly repel this attack without any disruption of eBays services.


Let me be clear, this attack on our site was distinguished not by its sophistication, but by it sheer scale. On an ordinary day on our web site outbound traffic exceeds inbound traffic by a 10-to-1 margin. During this attack we noted that inbound traffic was so heavy that it actually equaled outbound traffic.


Its our view that computer intrusions and attacks on commercial web sites are serious crimes that require a forceful response. Although these crimes are widely viewed within the hacking community as little more than pranks, they are much more serious, as last weeks attacks demonstrate.


Prior to last weeks attacks, eBay had established a close working relationship with the computer crimes squad within the Northern California office of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). eBay has long recognized that the best way to combat cyber crime, whether its fraud or hacking, is by working cooperatively with law enforcement. Therefore, last year we established procedures for notifying the FBI in the event of such an attack on our web site. As result of this preparation, we were able to contact the FBI computer intrusion squad during the attack and provide them with information that we expect will assist in their investigation. In the aftermath of the attack, eBay has also been able to provide the FBI with additional leads that have come to our attention.


We believe that this latest attack illustrates the challenge faced by law enforcement in the investigation and prosecution of cyber crime, and the importance of assuring that the Justice Department is adequately funded to meet this challenge. The Internet has become the backbone and lifeblood of the new world economy. And it is imperative that consumers retain the highest degree of confidence in its reliability and security.


Leading high tech companies can work cooperatively together and meet many of the challenges posed by cyber-criminals. But industry alone cant solve the problem without establishing a partnership with law enforcement. An important element in fighting this kind of cyber crime is ensuring that law enforcement both understands the technology, and has the tools it needs to work with private industry in investigating these crimes.


The need for an effective Internet law enforcement presence is particularly important in areas of the country that have a high concentration of high tech companies, such as the Eastern District of Virginia and the Northern District of California. Northern California, for example, has undergone a radical metamorphosis in the last 0 years, and is now home to more than 6,000 high tech companies, many of which are the leading high tech companies in the world. This growth in the high tech industry has been accompanied by a corresponding growth in high tech crimes. These crimes are no less a threat to our economic viability than conventional crimes, and can be much more difficult to investigate and prosecute.


The areas of the country that have a high concentration of high tech companies need resources dedicated to this growing problem. In Northern California, for example, the FBIs computer intrusion squad and the United States Attorneys Office must be adequately staffed to investigate and prosecute high tech-related crime. Such crime is a serious issue. Computer intrusions and attacks have become increasingly frequent, costing companies billions of dollars each year. Other high tech-related crimes, such as theft of trade secrets, sale of counterfeit goods on the Internet and theft of computer and high tech components, also require intervention by law enforcement. According to a 1 Rand Corporation study, theft of high technology components alone costs the industry $5 billion annually. The Justice Department cannot hope to keep up with this volume of work unless specific resources are targeted to provide them with badly needed agents and prosecutors in key high tech regions of the country.


Likewise, it is impossible to effectively combat cyber crime unless law enforcement understands this new medium at least as well as the cyber-criminals do. This requires both a sophisticated level of training, and up-to-date computer equipment. Private industry can play an important role in the training process. For example, eBay already provides regular training to law enforcement agencies to help them understand Internet commerce and the kinds of information available to assist them in finding and gathering evidence of cyber crimes.


While this partnership between industry and law enforcement can play an important role in fighting cyber crime, it cannot substitute for the basic tools that law enforcement must have to be effective ñ agents, prosecutors, and computer equipment.


It is important for this Subcommittee to send a message to cyber criminals throughout the world that the U.S. Government can and will protect e-commerce from criminal activity. But if Congress is to send a credible message that cyber crimes will be investigated and prosecuted vigorously, law enforcement must have the resources to back up that message. We urge you to take this into consideration as you determine the appropriate funding level for these important law enforcement agencies.


Ebay’s competitive position in on-line auction sector


“To help practically anyone trade practically anything on earth”


Jay Garcia


5-14-00


Rough Draft


I. Introduction


The number of dot coms seems to be shrinking everyday after an unfathomable number were created only a few years ago. The current dot coms are having trouble attaining enough revenue to break even, so to consider turning a profit is completely out of the question. All this is occurring despite the fact that the Internet can reach more users than any other form of business, yet it seems that almost no one is capable of any success.


One company that is not struggling and is one of the top-grossing companies on the Internet is eBay. EBay is an auction website and its journey from startup company only seven years ago to internet juggernaut today is amazing. eBay has put its loyalty in the user and continually strives to find the next innovation to make its sight better and easier for its user. This concept has paid ten fold and they continue to follow this concept today, which is why they continue to have success and have seen increasing profits since their inception seven years ago by Pierre Omidyar.


The Creation of EBay


EBay was founded in Pierre Omidyars San Jose living room back in September 15. It was from the start meant to be a market place for the sale of goods and services for individuals. Pierre saw eBay as a way to create a person-to-person trading community based on a democratized, efficient market where everyone could have equal access through the same medium, the Internet. He launched the online auction under the name of Auctionwatch at the domain name of www.eBay.com. The name eBay stood for “electronic Bay area,” in which Pierre’s initial concept was to attract neighbors and other interested San Francisco Bay area residents to the site to buy and sell items of mutual interest. The first auctions charged no fees to either buyers or sellers and contained mostly computer equipment. Pierre’s venture generated $1,000 in revenue the first month and an additional $,000 the second.


EBay continued to grow and Pierre knew he couldn’t handle this exponential growth alone so he brought in Jeff Skoll. Together the two of them hired techies, customer-support staff, and finance people. They set up their headquarters in San Jose, California.


By 17, the company public, but Pierre didn’t feel he could continue to lead his company’s sustained growth. He decided Meg Whitman as the company’s CEO. At the time Whitman never considered the thought of leaving her current position for a tiny upstart Internet company that allows consumers to determine the price of goods for themselves. On the other end Pierre Omidyar had just convinced the perfect candidate to lead his company into the future and he had no idea what the future would hold, but he knew it would be good.


II. Online Auctions


An action is a method of buying and selling goods to the highest bidder. A seller offers a particular product or service for sale, and the buyer who makes the highest offer for it is considered the auction winner. As the demand for a particular good rises among the buyers, the price also rises. Competition among bidders for a desirable good drives up the price. Sometimes the highest bid will exceed the generally accepted market value of the good, a phenomenon known as the “winners curse.”


Online auctions worked in the same way as the traditional auctions, the difference is that the auction process over the Internet rather than at a specific geographic location with buyers and sellers physically present. In 000, there were three categories of online auctions


Business-to-business auctions, which involves such items as computers, used equipment, and surplus merchandise.


Business-to-consumer auction, in which businesses sold goods and services to consumers via the Internet. Many such actions involved companies interested in selling used or discontinued goods, or liquidating unwanted inventory.


Person-to-person auctions, which gives interested sellers and buyers the opportunity to engage in competitive bidding.


Online auction operators could generate revenue in four principal ways


Charging sellers for listing their goods or service.


Charging a commission on all sales.


Selling advertising on their Web sites.


Selling their own new or used merchandise via the online auction format.


Most sites charge sellers either a fee or a commission and sold advertising to companies interested in promoting their goods or services to users of the auction site.


III. EBay’s Business Model


Ebay’s business model was based on creating and maintaining a person-to-person trading community where buyers and sellers could readily and conveniently exchange information and goods. Ebay’s role was to function as value-added facilitator online buyer-seller transactions by providing a supportive infrastructure that enabled buyers and sellers to come together in an efficient and effective manner. Success depended not only on the quality of eBay’s infrastructure but also on the quality and quantity of buyers and sellers attract to the site; in management’s view, this entailed maintaining a compelling trading environment, a number of trust and safety programs, a cost-effective and convenient trading experience, and strong community affinity. By developing the eBay brand name and increasing customer based, eBay endeavored to attract a suffiencent mnumber of high-quality buyers and sellers necessary to meet the organization’s goals. The online auction format meant that eBay carried zero inventory and could operate a marketplace without the need for a traditional sales force.


How EBay Auction Work


EBay made it very simple to buy and sell goods. In order to sell or bid on goods, users first had to register at the site. Once they registered, users select both user name and a password. Noneregistered users are able to view the Web site but are not permitted to bid on any goods or list any items for auction. On the Web site, search engines help customers determine what goods are currently available. When registered users found an item they like, they could choose to enter a bid. EBays bidding system operates as a proxy bid system. This means that you can submit a maximum bid amount and eBays system will act as a proxy bidder in your absence, executing your bid for you and trying to keep the bid price as low as possible. This way you dont have to watch the auction every minute. Users are also able to check their bids at any time and either bid again, if they have been outbid, or increase their maximum bid. EBay also offers a “Buy it Now” method, in which the seller can put a set price for the item, and in turn customer can buy the item right away. Users receive an email notification if they were outbid. Once the auction has ended, the buyer and seller are each notified of the winning bid. The parties to auction would then privately arrange for payment and delivery of the good.


Ebayers are not charged a fee for bidding on items on the site, but sellers were charged an insertion fee and a final value fee. They could also elect to pay additional fees to promote their listing, such as “Featured Item.” Final value fees range from $1.5 to 5 percent of the final sale price.


IV. Marketing and Advertising


EBay has used word of mouth advertising to reach most of its users. Towards the end of 001 eBay reached an agreement with AOL Time Warner to place advertisements on the AOL homepage and Disney/GO.com. Other than these two forms of advertising eBay generally doesn’t do much more, which allows them to save millions in the advertising budget. They then take this saved money and invest almost all of it marketing to create new innovations that keep it a head of the pack.


One might think that eBay would be hurting itself by not advertising since it was only begun in 15, but as of Jan 1, 00 eBay claimed it had 4. million “confirmed” users as listed in its financial report. Since that report was printed eBay has added 40 to 50 new members a day. These members are making 7 million transactions per quarter with a constant posting of around 5.5 million items. These transactions are projected to amount to between $45 million and $55 million in sales for the first quarter of 00 alone.


How EBay Keeps Users Loyal


EBay is so successful because of it has a large pool of loyal members and this is due eBay’s dedication to creating a true sense of community. When eBay was originally created, Pierre Omidyar was trying to create a marketplace where everyone had access to the same information. He wanted the individual to have the power to be the producer as well as the consumer and to this day eBay has stuck very close with this concept.


The first problem to arise that challenged this concept was when users began to have complaints about poor trading by either buyers or sellers. The initial reaction by Pierre Omidyar, back in 15, was that if eBayers really had to gripe, they should do it publicly on the site. Although, he also felt that if traders complain about people they don’t like, they should also say something nice about the people they do like. From these two thoughts he created the Feedback Forum, one of eBay’s most popular features. The Feedback Forum allowed users to rate each other based on however they felt instead of making eBay be the mediator for all complaints. This worked great, even though Pierre initially felt it would turn into a gripe forum, and traders would get the benefit of knowing how often the trader had traded and how other users felt the transaction was. The Feedback Forum ultimately proved one of eBay and Omidyar’s guiding philosophies.


EBay’s Other Appeals


To go along with the fact that eBay has created such a strong community base and takes care of all of its users, there are still fundamental human characteristics why eBay has such a loyal fan base. For one, eBay appeals to people’s basic sense of fun, because its exciting to check and see if someone has outbid your previous bid, trying to overbid that person again and then waiting for that e-mail to see if you won. EBay also plays on people’s gambling side without the risk of losing. A person will only bid on items they what they want for some purpose and that person also knows how much they’ll pay. Every time you bid there is a risk that someone may outbid you and you’ll continue until you’ve reached your highest price and then you quit. Up until that point though you’re always wondering and hoping and as humans, especially Americans, we love that. Finally eBay is affordable, occasionally someone will find their ultimate treasure way underpriced or priced where they can afford the item and then its that gambling, fun appeal that takes over. Although eBay gets addicting to its users, ultimately they’ll never lose because they never pay more than what they feel something is worth and you can’t say that about too many things in life.


V. The Innovations


EBay has been consistently ahead of all its competitors with innovations and new technology to increase its member base and also create a better experience for its current members since its creation. EBay is a company that is always looking for the next competitive advantage, because everyone knows once a company has a competitive advantage and everyone copies it, it’s not an advantage anymore. The only difference with eBay is that they come up with enough advantages that its competitors don’t have time to copy them all.


Personalizing the Website to Each Unique User


EBay’s first major innovation was the Feedback Forum, which was mentioned earlier in this paper. Another major innovation was called the “Personal Shopper”. The Personal Shopper allows a buyer/user to submit a request for an item and when an item of that type was listed by a seller an e-mail was sent to the buyer/user letting them know of the posting. Also through the Personal Shopper addition a person could search for items available in one’s own city, which would allow the buyer to save shipping costs or for larger more expensive items see the item first hand before making a larger bid. This option was an immediate success with the “eBay community.”


VI. Strategy


EBays strategy is to build on its leading position in online trading by broadening its trading platform across new product categories and geographies, developing global markets, enhancing features and functionality and fostering customer affinity.


Half.com


EBay has won the auction wars and clearly dominates the sector, the company is turning its attention to developing a generation of Web storefronts--online outlets where new products can be offered at fixed prices that are often heavily discounted. Acquiring Half.com was one of the key moves that allowed them to vault into a fixed-priced business. The goal of eBays merger with Half.com is to combine the best aspects of each site. While eBay is often applauded for its ease-of-use, customers say it is easier to sell products on Half.com. The timing of the integration was moved up in part because of the popularity of both Half.com and eBays Buy It Now feature.


The eBay community benefits from a marketplace combining traditional auction-style trading and Half.coms fixed-price trading. Half.com offers people a fixed-price, online marketplace to buy and sell high quality, new, overstocked, remaindered and used products at discounted prices. Unlike auctions, where the selling price is based on bidding, the seller sets the price for items at Half.com at the time an item is listed. The sites expanding marketplace currently includes books, CDs, movies, video games, computers, consumer electronics, sporting goods and trading cards. The idea for Half.com when realized there were inefficiencies between the supply and demand for used mass-market items. Half.com overcomes these inefficiencies and significantly streamlines the entire process of connecting people to buy and sell over the Internet. Buying at Half.com is similar to the shopping experience at other leading online retailers. Shoppers can easily search for specific items or browse for items that are categorized and surrounded with product descriptions, reviews and artwork. Sellers easily list items for sale by typing in a UPC code, ISBN, or model number, selecting the items condition and setting the sale price. There are no fees to list items on Half.com and like eBay, Half.com generates revenue from transactions completed on its network of Web sites. Half.com receives a 15% fee paid by the seller when the sale item closes. EBay combines the registration information of both sites so that members will use the same user ID and password to log onto either one.


EBay Stores


In a move designed to enhance its revenues and streamline the sales process for users, auction leader eBay created eBay Stores, designed to be customized shopping destinations that will significantly expand the way goods and services are traded on the site. EBay Stores is the next step in eBays evolution, said Meg Whitman, eBays president and CEO. Our sellers should realize increased sales as buyers become familiar with their stores. And our buyers will enjoy the added convenience of quickly being able to browse through the inventory of their favorite sellers.


EBay Stores expands the marketplace for sellers by allowing them to create customized shopping destinations to merchandise their items on eBay. For buyers, eBay Stores represents a convenient way to access sellers goods and services. Buyers who shop at eBay Stores are able to make immediate and multiple-item purchases for fixed-price and auction-style items.


Sellers create their stores using customizable eBay templates, and maintain the stores using eBays management tools or specified store management software. The eBay Stores allow sellers to include logos, customize the categories for their items and choose color schemes. Plus, sellers can customize a company information page, called an about page, and a store policies page in addition to the item listing pages.


Merchants get their eBay Stores listed in one of the categories on the eBay Stores homepage. Shoppers can access them in one of these ways by browsing the eBay Stores categories and then clicking on the stores they like, by clicking on the eBay Stores icon on a sellers feedback page or auction listing or by going directly to a specific eBay Store Web address. Store merchants who list auctions in addition to fixed-price items have an advantage because they can drive traffic to their stores through the auction listings. When users search eBay, the results they get only include auction items. So users who dont visit eBay stores will only see a sellers merchandise if the seller has some auctions.


EBay Professional Services


EBay and eLance Inc. (www.elance.com), the leading professional services marketplace and end-to-end platform for Web-based outsourcing solutions, teamed up for a new eBay specialty site for professional services. The site, called Services for Business, will provide eBay’s users with convenient access to cost effective professional services.


The introduction of Services for Business advances eBay’s evolution toward becoming the best place in the world to find the largest variety of goods and services. With eLance, the eBay community can now get a wide range of professional services and project work completed through the siteÿeverything from web design, creative services, programming, graphic design and more. Professional Services on eBay serves the fast growing and fragmented small business marketplace by providing a destination on eBay to find professionals and freelancers for all kinds of business needs.


ELance offers buyers the ability to reach an international pool of quality service providersÿfirms and professionalsÿthat will bid to work on projects. Beyond access, eLance also provides online portfolio and credentials review, online collaboration tools, a global billing and payment system, and quality assurance programs to ensure high standards for work that is transacted though the marketplace. With immediate access to a global talent pool, users can find high quality work delivered efficiently and cost effectively, regardless of their location. “The business services marketplace is an important element of our growth strategyÿexpanding the eBay community particularly in the business sector,”said Brian Swette, eBay’s chief operating officer. “We chose to work with eLance because they have demonstrated a strong business model for accessing high quality professional services with their technology and fast growing base of users.”


The Official Online Car Dealer Label


In January 00 eBay was named the official online car dealer. This is in conjunction with ebaymotors.com that was created through the insistence of the “eBay community”. What makes eBaymotors better than the already existing online car dealers is its newly created assurance program designed to protect buyers and sellers money and ensure that the buyer and seller get what they bargained for. EBay created the first site-unseen warranty in the online dealership community. This gives buyers one month or 1,000 miles, whichever comes first, warranty and although this only applies to cars before 1 it’s a start and still better than any other warranty available. EBay is also already in the process of extending this warranty plan, but is waiting to see how the initial plan works first. EBay also provides purchase insurance up to $0,000 for $500, but that generally won’t happen with the Mobile Vehicle Inspection Service. The Mobile Vehicle Inspection Service is performed by a professional and is listed with the car on the website to allow the buyer to have an unbiased report for a very small fee by either the buyer or seller. Finally, to ensure all payments are paid eBay has joined with Escrow.com to secure down payments and payment-in-full when necessary. All of these things along with the fact that eBaymotors.com had a record 4.78 million visitors in December 001 alone shows it is the undisputed king.


Developing International Markets


As competition increased in the online auction industry, eBay began to seek growth opportunities in international markets in an effort to create a global trading community.


While international buyers and sellers had been trading on eBay for some time, there were no facilities designed especially for the needs of these community members. In entering international markets, eBay considered three options. It could build a new user community from the ground up, acquire a local organization, or from a partnership with a strong local company. In realizing its goals of international growth eBay employed all three strategies. Table 1 shows the list of the international markets of eBay.


In late 18, eBay’s initial effort at international expansion into Canada and the United Kingdom relied on building new user communities. The first step in establishing these communities was creating customized home pages for users in those countries. The home pages were designed to provide content and categories locally customized to the needs of users in specific countries, while providing them with access to a global trading community. Local customization in United Kingdom was facilitated through the use of local management, grassroots and online marketing, and participation in local events.


In February 1, eBay partnered with PBL Online, a leading Internet company in Australia, to offer a customized Australian and New Zealand eBay home page. When the site went live, trasactions were denominated in Australian dollars and while buyers could bid on auctions anywhere in the world, they could also search for items located in Australia.


To further expand its global reach, eBay acquired Germany’s largest online person-to-person trading site. Ebay’ s management handled the transition of service in a manner calculated to be smooth and painless for the users. While the users would have to comply with eBay rules and regulations. The only significant change for the users was that they would have to go to a new URL to transact their business.


To establish an Asian presence, in February 000 eBay formed a joint venture with NEC to launch eBay Japan. According to the new CEO of eBay Japan, Merle Okawara, an internationally renowned executive, NEC was pleased to help eBay in leveraging the tried and trusted eBay business model to provide Japanese consumers with access to a global community of active online buyers and sellers. In customizing the site to needs of Japanese users, eBay wrote content exclusively in Japanese and allowed users to bid in yen.


Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Brazil


Canada France Germany Ireland Italy


Korea Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Singapore


Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan United Kingdom


Table 1. The global sites of eBay.


Blocking Auction Search Engines (Web Crawlers)


EBay has sought to block aggregators such as Web Crawlers from accessing its Web site. The software searches the Internet for the lowest price of a product, among other things, and is widely used by comparison-shopping sites or search engines. In some cases, the searches can be intrusive or even destructive.


Bidders Edge and Auction Watch does not host auctions, they are “Web Crawlers”. The “Web Crawlers ’” site contained information on more that five million items being auctioned on more than one hundred auction sites. “Web Crawlers” also provides its users with additional auction-related services and information. The information available on the web site is contained in a database of information that “Web Crawlers” compiles through access to various auction sites such as eBay. When a user enters a search for a particular item at Bidders Edge or Auction Watch, it searches its database and generates a list of every item in the database responsive to the search, organized by auction closing date and time. Rather than going to each host auction site one at a time, a user who goes to a “Web Crawlers” site may conduct a single search to obtain information about that item on every auction site


EBay has reached agreements with other companies that list auctions, although it imposes some restrictions on how it is done. Currently eBay is using a software to prevent “Web Crawlers” from connecting to eBay’s auction site.


VII. Ebay’s Main Competitors


In the broadest sense, eBay competed with classified advertisements in the newspaper, garage sales, flea markets, collectibles shows, and other venues such as local auction houses and liquidators. As eBay’s product mix broadened beyond collectibles to include practical household items, office equipment, toys, and so on, the company’s competitors broadened to include brick-and-mortar retailers, imports/exports companies, and catalog and mail order companies. Management saw these traditional competitors as inefficient because their fragmented local and regional nature made it expensive and time-consuming for buyers and sellers to meet, exchange information, and complete transactions. Moreover, they suffered from they suffered from three other deficiencies


They tended to offer limited variety and breadth of sections as compared to the millions of items available on eBay.


They often had high transactions costs.


They were information inefficient in the sense that buyers and sellers lacked reliable and convenient means of setting prices for sales or purchases.


Thus, eBay’s management saw its online auction format as competitively superior to these rivals because it provides


Facilitated buyers and sellers meeting, exchanging information, and conducting transactions.


Allowed buyers and sellers bypass traditional intermediaries and trade directely, thus lowering costs.


Provided global reach, greater selection, and broader base of participants.


Permitted trading at all hours and provided continuously updated information.


Fostered a sense of community among individuals with mutual interests.


From an e-commerce perspective, Amazon.com, Yahoo Auctions, and Ubid.com had emerged as eBay’s main competitors. But FairMarkets, AucitonWatch, GO Network Auctions, and Auctions.com were beginning to make market inroads and contribute to erosion of eBay’s share of the online auction business. Moreover, the prospects of attractive profitability and low barriers to entry were stimulation more firms to enter competition in the online auction industry as revolving around 10 factors the volume and selections of goods, the population of buyers and sellers, community interaction, customer service, reliability of delivery and payment by users, brand image, Web site construction, fees and prices, and quality of search tools.


How eBay’s Auction Site Compared to Rivals


Auction sites varied in a number of features such as; site design and ease of use, the range of items up for auction, number of simultaneous auctions, duration of the bidding process and fees. Gomez Advisors, a company designed to help Internet users select which online enterprises to do business with, had developed rankings for the leading online auction sites as a basis for recommending which sites were best for bargain hunters, hobbyist/collectors, and sellers. Table shows the winter 1 Gomez ratings of online auction competitors. Table provides selected statistics for the leading competitors in the online auction market.


Rating Based on Site Characteristics (Rating scale; 0 = Lowest; 10 = Highest)





Auction Site Ease of Usea Customer Confidenceb On-Site Resourcesc Relationship Servicesd Overall Score





Ebay .07 6. 8.4 8.4 7.7


Amazon.com .05 8.4 7.0 6.17 7.67


Yahoo! Auction 8.6 6.1 4.18 8.6 7.11


GO Network Auctions .14 7.44 6.4 5.8 7


FairMarket Network 7.7 6.8 6.7 5.17 6.4


Auctions.com 8. 6.78 5.5 5.1 6.41


Source Gomez Advisors, www.gomez.com, Winter 1.


Table . Comparative Gomez Advisors’ ratings of leading online auction sites.


aBased on such factors as screen layout, tightly integrated content, functionality, useful demos and the extensiveness of online help.


bInludes the reliability and security of the online auction site, knowledgeable and accessible customer service and quality guarantees.


cBase on the range of products, services and information offered, information look-up tools and transactions data.


dBased on personalization of options, programs and perks that build a sense of community and customer loyalty to the site.


eBay Yahoo! Auctions Amazon.com





Number of items listed for auction .8 million 1. million 415,00


Percentage of listed auctions 65% 14% 11%


Average numer of bids per item .0 0.5 0.


Average selling prices for completed auctions $65.1 $1.0 $5.77


Source Taken from “Internet eBay Crushing the Competition,” Individual Investor, January 1, 000.


Table . Statistics for the leading competitor in the online auction market.





Table 4 shows the top auction sites ranked by revenue shares in May 001. It reveals just how much of a lead eBay has. Ebay can be seen on top of the list by having the revenue share of 64.%, then followed by uBid.com with 14.7%, Onsale.com with 4%, Yahoo! Auctions with .4% and Amazon Auction with %.


Top Auction Sites Ranked by Revenue Share, May 001 (U.S.)


Auction Site Revenue Share Satisfaction Rate Conversion Rate


eBay.com 64.0% 8.4 .50%


uBid.com 14.70% 7.87 11.00%


Egghead.com (Onsale.com) 4.00% 7.75 8.00%


Yahoo! Auctions .40% 7.84 4.40%


Amazon Auctions .00% 7.64 6.50%


Source “Silicon Valley” http//siliconvalley.internet.com/news/article/0,18,51_7801,00.html


Table 4. Shows the revenue share, satisfaction rate, and conversion rate of the top auction sites.


EBay has done an excellent job converting a very high percentage of their shoppers into buyers and keeping customers extremely satisfied at the same time. This has enabled them to dominate the online auction category with four times more revenue than their next closest competitor.


VIII. Recent Inside eBay’s Financial Numbers


Based on the company’s most recent performance, eBay now believes that net revenues for second quarter 00 will range between $60 and $65 million, bringing its first half 00 net revenue guidance to between $505 and $510 million, representing the high end of previous guidance. EBay also believes that second quarter 00 pro forma earnings per diluted share will approximate $0.17, bringing its first half 00 guidance to approximately $0.5. This earnings level represents an increase of $0.0 to $0.04 from the company’s previous guidance of $0.1 to $0. per diluted share.


EBay now believes that net revenues for second quarter 00 will range between $60 and $65 million, bringing its first half 00 net revenue guidance to between $505 and $510 million, representing the high end of previous guidance. This net revenue outlook reflects the company’s expectation that a sequential decrease in advertising revenues will be fully offset by higher than previously anticipated transaction revenues, from both the U.S. and international markets.


The company remains committed to making important strategic investments to build its marketplace for the long term. In Q-0, eBay will increase marketing expenditures both domestically and internationally and continue to roll out its next-generation technology infrastructure.


For the full year 00, eBay expects that net revenues will approximate $1.1 billion, representing the high end of its previous guidance of $1.05 billion to $1.1 billion. On the bottom line, eBay now believes that pro forma earnings per diluted share could range between $0.7 and $0.75, reflecting a $0.0 to $0.04 increase from previous guidance.


Source Ebay Annual report (http//www.shareholder.com/ebay/annual.cfm).


Table 5. Ebay’s financial results during in December 1, 001 and March 1, 00.


IX. The Future of EBay


EBay has become an online middleman for buyers and sellers in a way which traditional brick and mortar companies cannot touch. Using the web has also brought along with it some challenges, especially regarding trust issues between buyers and sellers.


EBay seems to have dealt adequately with those trust issues, since users dont seem to mind and continue to use their service. EBay is operationally sound, especially considering it is still in its buildup period and it has a business model that scales extremely well. The management has shown that it responds quickly and well, and has been working hard to expand the business without jeopardizing the core business.


EBay has seen constant growth since its inception and to continue this trend it will need to continually find new ways to acquire more users and keep the current users making transactions. In the near future eBay will try to make its most recent innovations ebaymotors.com and allowing corporations to place items on its website more efficient, all while coming up with new and more innovative ideas.


EBay is also investing lots of time and effort by expanding to twenty different international markets. These investments have already paid off with 1 of those 0 international markets becoming the number one auction site in their respective market.


X. Conclusion


Pierre Omidyar had no idea what would result from his small online auction creation to help his wife with Pez trading in 15. The result is that eBay has seen increasing revenues since its creation because of the original solid framework set up by Pierre Omidyar.


Pierre Omidyar’s ability to manage as well as get help when needed, such as letting Meg Whitman take over as CEO and hiring Jeff Skoll has allowed the company to continuously grow. This ability to manage ultimately assisted in taking eBay’s listing price of $18 to $47 in one day making him and everyone else in the company rich.


Word of mouth advertising and one small joint agreement has allowed eBay to avoid the huge costs of advertising. EBay has avoided its own advertising costs while grossing some of the most advertising money among internet firms by placing small icons for other companies on their website.


EBay’s idea to make its members part of a community has paid off substantially with the community currently standing at a strong 44 million users and growing every day. EBay has fought off its auction competitors by creating new and unique options for its users such as ebaymotors.com, personal shopper, and buy it now just to name a few.


EBay has nothing to hold it back from growing in the future with its ability to generate ideas and its constant expansion. It seems that only eBay has the ability to stop eBay.


Recommendations


EBay needs to continue to follow the solid foundation created by Pierre Omidyar to keep the users number one, because eBay has no products and without the users or “community” they will have nothing.


The growth of eBay is amazing to say the least, but it needs to be careful not to grow too quickly too fast. The company has handled itself well so far, but if it grows too fast it could overwhelm its systems with users or items and cause down time. If this occurs too often the company could see a major drop in users.


EBay needs to capitalize on its new innovations especially ebaymotors.com. They know it is a winner because of its popularity and they should not take that lightly and continue to improve. EBay should also continue to improve all its other innovations, because once another auction site copies their idea its not a competitive advantage any longer.


EBay needs to be continue to come up with new ways to increase its amount of users and get its current members to trade more. EBay ’s competitors are lagging behind, but it only takes a little misstep before they step in and try to take over their territory.


The international markets eBay has expanded have succeeded instantly and eBay should make sure that it continues to invest in these international ventures. EBay should also try to link these international ventures together to create a more diverse trading atmosphere, but that also needs to be taken with precaution due to transportation of items and differences in currency.


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