Thursday, May 31, 2012

Inflation

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For 1 years, from 1800 to 1, there was zero inflation. Since the abandonment of the gold standard in 1, there has been no restraint on the creation of money and debt out of thin air by the banking system. (1) Inflation has been a regular occurrence in our economy ever since. (1)

Since 150 there has been an 87% reduction in the value of a dollar. Based on the consumer price index, a dollar in 150 is worth only 1 cents today. (1) A postage stamp in the 150’s cost cents, and they now cost 7 cents, a 1% jump in inflation. (1) A gallon of gasoline cost 15 cents; today it costs about $1.65, an 1100% increase. (1) A new house in 15 averaged $14,00; today it’s $07,000, an inflation of 18%. (1) A dental crown used to cost $40; today it’s $640, an inflation of 1600%. (1) Several generations ago a person worked 1.4 months per year to pay for government; they now must work 5 months to do the same. (1) In the past, one wage earner families lived well and built savings, with minimal debt, and college educated their children without loans. (1) In the past, families commonly only had one parent working, today both parents must work to produce enough income to pay the bills. If this rate of inflation continues, what is the next option, putting your kids into the workforce? With so many mothers and fathers both in the workforce, the real losers are the children of these parents. They must be brought up by daycare or other forms of child care. When today’s 15-year old will retire, and with the value of today’s dollar being worth just 1 cents, the value of the dollar will be just cents when compared to the 150 dollar. (1)

Inflation by definition is the loss of a constant purchasing value of the dollar, caused by an increase of the supply of money and debt creation by the financial system at a faster rate than general economic growth, resulting in a rise in the general price level of goods and services. () Its opposite is deflation, a fall in the general price or a contraction of credit and availability of money. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics produces the Consumer Price Index (CPI) yearly. The CPI measures average price changes in relation to prices in a randomly selected base year. () While the CPI is usually considered the most reliable estimate of inflation, some economists have questioned whether it overstates inflationary trends. Inflation results from an increase in the amount of circulating currency beyond the needs of trade. () When an oversupply of currency is created, the value of money decreases. () Deflation is brought about by the opposite condition. In the past, inflation was often due to a large entry of gold, such as took place in Europe after the discovery of America and at the end of the 1th century when new supplies of gold were found and exploited in South Africa. Recently the most common causes of inflation include government borrowing, the increase in the money supply, and a diminished supply of consumer goods which increase demand, causing prices to rise. ()

Inflation stimulates business and helps wages to rise, but the increase in wages usually fails to match the increase in prices, which causes actual wages to shrink. Stockholders sometimes falsely think they are making gains from increased business profits, but bondholders are actually loosing because their fixed percentage return has less buying power. () Borrowers also gain from inflation since the future value of money is reduced. Deflation lowers prices and increases unemployment through the depression of business. An abnormally steep and sudden rise in prices, sometimes called hyperinflation, may result in the eventual breakdown of an entire nations economic system. () One example of this occurred in Germany in 1 where prices rose ,500% in one month. () In the United States, annual price increases of less than about % or % are not considered indicative of serious inflation. () During the early 170s, however, prices rose by much higher percentages, leading President Nixon to apply wage and price controls in 171.

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To better understand what inflation is, imagine that everything was for sale on the entire planet. Every good or service that exists today has the value of 100 units. Also, imagine that all the money in the world is also equal to 100 units today. Now, imagine that people worked very hard and increased the availability of goods and services on the planet to 10 units, a gain of % in global GDP. This would cause a deflated dollar because less money is chasing a small surplus of goods. Now imagine that the total global money supply increased from 100 units to 11 units globally, up 1%. With 11 units of money chasing only 10 units of goods and services, global price levels will gradually rise. Since there are only a limited number of things on which money can be spent, and increase in the money supply that exceeds the increase of available goods and services over the same time period is inflationary. When more money chases fewer goods and services, inflation is the inevitable result. ()

Deflation occurs when one of things happen. () First, if the total money supply rises slower than an increase in goods and services. () Second, if the total money supply shrinks and the goods and services expand, deflation occurs. () Third, if the total money supply shrinks faster than goods and services contract, deflation occurs. ()

It is intimidating to think that the value of your savings may only be as valuable as the rate of inflation allows. It is scary to think about what might happen to our lifestyles if inflation continues at it’s steady pace. People’s wages need to be adjusted accordingly to the rate of inflation.

In conclusion, inflation is a problem that is not going to be solved unless we go back to the gold standard or by some other government stability.



Please note that this sample paper on Inflation is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Inflation, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Inflation will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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abc costing

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INTRODUCTION

The last 10 years have brought substantial changes to the health care

industry. Managed care fee reimbursement structures have many physicians

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working harder, but earning less. Costs for providing medical services have

increased, while payments for those services have decreased. Capitation has

shifted insurance risk to the medical practice, and many physicians and



administrators do not know how to adequately evaluate the performance of

their managed care contracts. To remain profitable in this environment, a

physician needs accurate cost information from which informed business

decisions can be made.

The health care industry can use techniques developed by manufacturing

companies to help them remain profitable, eliminate unnecessary costs and

plan for change. The growing demand for high-quality, low-cost products

led manufacturers to develop a methodology called activity-based costing,

or ABC. This technique identifies the relationship between an activity and

the resources needed to complete it. It then assigns costs to the resources

consumed by the activity. This technique can be effectively applied to a

medical practice. When a practice knows how much it costs to provide a

specific service, informed managed care decisions can be made.

Actuarial data can be used to predict procedure utilization, and through these

data, the number of procedures the practice will perform under the contract

can be estimated. Cost figures can be applied to these estimates for a

projection of how much it will cost the medical practice. The amount the

practice will receive can be compared with what the practice anticipates it

will cost to provide services . The difference will be profit or loss. Any

profitability estimate is a guess, but accurate cost information can make that

guess an educated one.

Activity Based Costing (ABC) is an accounting technique that

allows an organization to determine the actual cost associated with each

product and service produced by the organization. Activities can be defined

as a named process, function, or task that occurs over time and has

recognized results.

Activities use up assigned resources to produce products and

services. Inputs are transformed into outputs under the perimeters set by

controls performed by the organizations employees and their tools.

Activities can be perceived as consumers of resources in production of

materials, services, events, or information. Activities are the common

denominator between business process improvement and information

improvement. Documenting and understanding activities is necessary in

order to improve the business process, since activities are the building

blocks of business processes.

When employees understand the activities they perform, they

can better understand costs based on the activities. Traditional financial

information is reorganized by ABC into a form that makes sense to the

casual functional user; in addition to the usual information that tells them

how they spend money, it also tells them what to do with the money. This

ability to place costs on activities and their outputs provides a clear metric

for improvement, whether for determining improvement priorities in the

long-term or for measuring near-term success. ABC allows functional users

to characterizethe value of, or need for, each activity, getting rid of the waste

before automating (or reautomating) activities.

Activity-Based Costing (ABC) arose in the 180s from the

increasing lack of relevance of traditional cost accounting methods. The

traditional cost accounting methods were designed around 1870 - 10 and

in those days industry was labor intensive, there was no automation, the

product variety was small and the overhead costs in companies were

generally very low compared to today. However, from the 160s �

particularly 180s - this changed rapidly. For these reasons, and more,

traditional cost accounting has been called everything from number 1 enemy

of production and questions whether it is an asset or a liability have been

raised.

The question of course is whether ABC has overcome these deficiencies or

not? It has. In fact, ABC has been called one of the most important

management innovations the last hundred years.

So what is really the difference between ABC and traditional cost

accounting methods? Despite the enormous difference in performance, there

is only three major differences

In traditional cost accounting it is assumed that cost objects consume

resources whereas in ABC it is assumed that cost objects consume

activities.

Traditional cost accounting mostly utilizes volume related allocation

bases while ABC uses drivers at various levels.

Traditional cost accounting is structure-oriented whereas ABC is

process-oriented.

This is discussed in more detail in the subsequent sections and illustrated

below.



But first, the directions of the arrows are different because ABC brings

detailed information from the processes up to assess costs and manage

capacity on many levels whereas traditional cost accounting methods simply

allocate costs, or capacity to be correct, down onto the cost objects without

considering any cause and effect relations.





Consumption of resources versus consumption of activities

ABC acknowledges that you cannot manage costs, you can only manage

what is being done and then costs will change as a consequence. In

traditional cost accounting, however, the underlying assumption is that costs

can be managed, but as most managers have found out the hard way �

managing costs is almost impossible.

The benefit of the ABC mindset is that it opens up for a much wider

array of measures when it comes to improving productivity. By investigating

systematically what is being done, i.e. the activities, one will not only be

able to identify surplus capacity if it occurs, but also lack of capacity and

misallocation of capacity. A result of this might be that costs are cut the

traditional way, but it might as well lead to a reallocation of capacity to

where it is most needed which will yield high productivity more effectively

than the traditional way.



Volume related allocation bases versus drivers at many levels

Due to the historic background of traditional cost accounting methods, they

tend to use direct labor - or other volume related allocation bases - for cost

assignment purposes. But as overhead has grown and new technologies have

come, it goes without saying that assigning costs based on only 5 - 15% (in

most companies) of total costs is highly risky. In fact, the incurred errors are

up to several hundred percent!

In ABC, however, costs are assigned according to the cause and effect

relationship between activities (the actual process) and cost objects, which is

captured using drivers. The drivers are therefore not allocation bases in the

traditional sense, although they work the same way mathematically - drivers

are estimates of actual cost behavior and can therefore also be used to

identify, or they are themselves, the critical cost factors. Because the drivers

are related to the actual processes, they occur on several levels. The four

most common levels are;

Unit level. Unit level drivers are triggered for every unit that is being

produced. For example, for a man and a machine that produces one

unit at a time, the associated direct labor will be a unit level cost

driver. This is therefore a volume related driver similar to the

traditional allocation bases.

Batch level. Batch level drivers are triggered for every batch

produced. A good example of that is production planning, because the

planning is done for each and every batch regardless of the size of the

batch. Here, number of batches can be a good driver.



Product level. Product level drivers are triggered for every product

regardless of the number of units and batches produced. These drivers

occur by the sole existence of a product. A good example of a driver

is the number of product development hours per product so that the

more product development hours a product triggers, the more product

development costs should be assigned to that product.

Facility level. Facility level driver are drivers that are not related to

the products at all. Costs that are traced by such drivers will therefore

be allocated to products and not traced. The difference between

allocation and tracing is that allocation is quite arbitrary whereas

tracing is based on cause and effect relations.

Hence, we see that the traditional usage of fixed and variable

costs is totally meaningless. In ABC, all costs are included. While we

discuss drivers it is important to mention that in ABC there are two types of

drivers w.r.t. cost assignment;

Activity drivers that keep track of how cost object behavior

influences activity levels, i.e., the level of activity for each activity.

Resource drivers that keep track of how the subsequent activity level

affects the resource consumption.

Before we continue it is important to mention that in early terminology

activity drivers were referred to as second stage cost drivers whereas

resource drivers were denoted first stage cost drivers. But it is evident that

the word cost driver is misleading in this context because activity- and

resource drivers do not tell what drives costs in the general case.

Therefore, in Activity-Based Management (ABM) a third type of drivers is

employed in addition to the two aforementioned drivers. This type of drivers

is called cost drivers and they are the underlying causes of costs of activities

and measured by non-financial performance measures. Today, the most

important of these measures can be presented in a Balanced Scorecard and

they represent the process view in ABM.



Structure-orientation versus process-orientation

Traditional costing systems are more concerned about the organizational

charts than the actual process. Traditional cost accounting systems are

therefore structurally oriented and the process view is completely missing

The result is that one cannot ask what needs to be done?, because the

process is unknown. The only questions such costing systems can give

answers to, although often off the mark, is what do we have at our disposal

to do the job?.

The latter question is a question of capacity, that is, how capacity is

managed. Capacity is measured as an expense and found easily in the

accounting system. The first question is a question of resource management,

because resources is what you need in order to do a job and measured as a

cost, but the resource measures can only be found by investigating the

processes.

Thus, because ABC is process-oriented and gathers information

from the processes it can be used to identify both what needs to be done?

and how to allocate resources most productively. ABC can therefore give

managers the ability to match the resource needs with the available capacity

as closely as possible, and hence improving productivity. From this we

understand that the structure oriented approach of traditional costing systems

gives no decision support in allocating capacity to match resource needs.

Over time this leads to cost inefficient organizations and poor profitability.

There is also another aspect to process-orientation; how ABC is used

and implemented. Because ABC can direct attention towards the causes of

costs (critical success factors) related to both cost objects and processes and

not to mention the cost of quality, ABC is viewed as more than a method for

cost accounting - it invites to a whole new way of management, such as;

The identification of critical success factors that enables continuous improvement of product- and process design.

The link between cost information and other information enables a much wider array of improvement strategies than traditionally acknowledged.



The identification of the cost of quality and the process-orientation in ABC open up for a very powerful link to Total Quality Management (TQM) where both ABC and TQM can realize their fullest potential.

From the above discussion it should be evident that not only is ABC useful

and powerful to any organization, but a need for companies that want to

excel, and efficiently and effectively increase their Sustainable Competitive Advantage (SCA). As one marketing executive said This is revolutionary!.

Components of ABC



Before performing ABC, a baseline or a starting point is needed for

business process improvement , and a baseline can be expressed in some

form of model. A baseline is a documentation of the organizations or

agencys policies, practices, methods, measures, costs and their

interrelationships at a particular location at a particular point in time.

Through baselining, activity inputs and outputs across functional lines of

business can be identified. ABC is the only improvement methodology that

provides output or unit costs.

An important function of ABC is for the organizations activities to be

defined as value added or non-value added. Value added activities are those

for which the customers are usually willing to pay (in some way) for the

service. Non-value added are activities that create waste, result in delay of

some sort, add costs to the product/s, or for which the customer is not

willing to pay.



Resources are assigned to activities to allow them to be conducted;



performing the activity results in a cost that can be priced, which can be

assigned to the primary output. It is through ABC, that an organization can

begin to see actual dollar costs against individual activities, and find

opportunities to streamline or reduce the costs, or eliminate the entire

activity, especially if there is no value added.

Steps for Performing ABC

Functional Managers identifies five activities that need to occur in order to

determine activity costs

Analyze Activities

. Gather Costs

Trace Costs to Activities

4.Establish Output Measures

5. Analyze Costs

Analyze Activities

First the scope of the activities to be analyzed must be identified. A

determination then is made if an activity is value or non-value added; also if

the activity is primary or secondary, and required or not needed. Value

added is determined if the output of the activity is directly related to

customer requirements, service or product, as opposed to an administrative

or logistical outcome that services the providing organization. For instance,

if the output of an activity were an inventory report or update for products

(for which there are customers), the output would be non-value added, but

necessary to the organization, i.e., overhead. A major goal of

reengineering is to reduce non-value added activities and eliminate those

that are not necessary. Primary activities directly support the organizations

mission while secondary activities support primary activities. Required

activities are those that must always be performed while discretionary

activities are performed only when allowed by the operating management.

Gather Costs

In this step costs are gathered for the activity producing the products or

services provided as the outcome. These costs can be salaries, expenditures

for research, machinery, office furniture, etc. These costs are used as the

baseline activity costs. When documents for the costs incurred are not

available, cost assignment formulas may be used.

Trace Costs to Activities

In this step the results of analyzing activities and the gathered organizational

inputs and costs are brought together, which produces the total input cost for

each activity. A simple formula for costs is provided - outputs consume

activities that in turn have consumed costs associated with resources. This

leads to a simple method to calculate total costs consumed by an activity �

multiply the percent of time expended by an organizational unit, e.g.,

branch, division, on each activity by the total input cost for that entity. Here

we are not calculating costs, just finding where they come from.

Establish Output Measures

In this step the actual activity unit cost is calculated. Even

though activities may have multiple outputs, only one is identified as the

primary output. Activity unit cost is calculated by dividing the total input

cost, including assigned costs from secondary activities, by the primary

activity output volume; the primary output must be measurable and its

volume or quantity obtainable. From this, a bill of activities can then be

calculated which contains or lists a set of activities and the amount of each

activity consumed. The amount of each activity consumed is extended by the

activity unit cost and is added up as a total cost for the bill of activity.

Analyze Costs

In the final step, the calculated activity unit costs and bills of

activity are used to identify candidates for improving the business processes.

Managers can use the information by stratifying the activity costs and

identifying a certain percentage of activities that consume the majority of

costs. The thing to keep in mind is that the identification of non-value added

activities occurs through this process with a clarity that allows us to

eliminate them, and at the same time permits the product or service to be

provided to the customer with greater efficiency.

ORGANISATION PROFILE



Established in the year 188, Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre

now has 1050 beds with a full spectrum of clinical activities providing hi-

tech and comprehensive medical care. This ten lakh sq. ft hospital building

has been planned to include all services to patients under one roof and to

serve the cross section of the community. There is a good distribution of free

patients, heavily subsidised ones and the ones who will pay for the services

in full. The medical care itself is uniformly monitored to establish

predictable levels of care that will reach every patient



In general Out patient services are provided in a wide spread area

with all the facilities supervised and managed by consultants. Close to ,000

out-patient visits are recorded everyday. Where free medical consultations,

prescriptions medicines and laboratory service are given free.

In addition to the OP services, Ambulatory private clinic is available for

consultants to see private patients or patients referred by industries and

affiliate organisations. Here patients are seen by consultants and when

necessary admitted to the private wards. The services are offered on a fee for

service basis.

Quality health care is being provided by a team of committed,

highly qualified, experienced consultants. The daily charges are affordable

and a wide choice by way of room rent from Rs. 150 per day to Rs.1500 is

available. These charges include the room charges and nursing care. Special

arrangements have been made for nutritious food to be served hygienically

at bed side.

The hospital offers full range of surgical services with qualified

consultants addresses a variety of emergency and elective problems.

Specialists in surgery in every area like hepatobiliary, pancreas, liver and

intestine including surgical oncology are available on a full time basis.

Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery has gained a special reputation in

this institution. The department of general surgery is organized into seven

clinical units, each unit having one chief, two assistants and one registrar.

The blalock OT is assigned to the general surgery units for all five days from

Monday to Friday.



Please note that this sample paper on abc costing is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on abc costing, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on abc costing will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from Live Paper Help and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



san fran music

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on san fran music. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality san fran music paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in san fran music, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your san fran music paper at affordable prices with Live Paper Help!



The history of popular music contains many ruptures “to existing styles and genre’s. Compare and contrast two such periods of “new music”, paying particular regard to the factors which bring about such musical change. Your examination should consider the areas of musical influences, social relationships, technology, marketing, media and audiences.

Popular music evolves from the bottom up. It is nearly always pushed forward or re-defined, from within the underground and the alternative segments of society. New musical movements tend to bubble away benaeath the surface of mainstream society until I they can no longer be ignored. Breathing new air into what was once a climate of safe radio friendly songs supporting the staus quo. Rythum and blues in one form or another had been a tradional folk music of Black Americans of rock for as long as Black Americans had been brought to America as slaves. It was this music that eventually influenced and redefined music as we know it today. Creating what we now as Rock and Roll. “The rhythm and blues….laid the foundation for Elvis, the Beatles, the Rolling Stones , Led Zepplin, the Sex Pistols and most other rock and roll groups”

The birth of Rock has undoubtebly been the largest transformation of Popular music. However within Rock there have also been massive amounts of ruptures and emergence of new music.

Two of these ruptures have been the acid rock/ pscycadllia movement of San Francisco in the late sixties and conversely the Punk Movement of England in the mid-seventies. Although worlds apart in their music their beliefs and their look, both sub-cultures began as an underground movement that started small but grew to capture the worlds imagination. Both were rebelling, although in completely different ways, to the staus quo. Both set about to bring about a change within not only music but general society. Althgough both sub cultures influence was much ;larger than music, creating a lifestyle it was that was the rudimenrty element, the catalyst for the movement.

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Within this essay I will look at how both these ‘new’ musical movements came into being. How they were influnced by other movments. How their cultural and social environment shaped them. How the dealt with and effected both their audience/fans and the mainstream media and wider society.

The seed of a new movement is always ispirartion, either the inspiratrion to be like something or the inspiration to be different from something. The Punk the Hippy movement both had their own forms musical inspiration which they drew from and approarited in varying degrees. Conversely both had an established musical style in which to rebel and polarize themselves against.

In the early 160’s America’s charts had been awash with the new flavour of British Rock. Bands like the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, Gerry and the Pacemakers and the Hollies had dominated sales. Although many of these bands would soon later go on to sing more deeply lyrically at the time the ideas expressed were very light weight. With the Vietnam War being waged and the use of drugs increasing many were becoming more politically yearned for a different type of music, a music that involved ideas of drug use free love and anti-esatablishment. As Grace Slick put it we beatles hold your hand.

Like the hippies the Punks also rebelled against the established music at the time however unlike the hippy movement their rebellion was to re-simplfy the music “to an earlier age wher rockers had more exuberance than ability” Dancing in the Street) As Johhny Rotten (Dacing in the Street). To bring back music to it’s roots with a simple beat and lyrics that could be that were sharp and to the point. (put it mainstream early seventies music was “Nothing but pompus stadium rock for snobby university students, there was nothing for Joe Bloggs in the street”. At the time the music industry was dominated by bands with a large amount of musical knowledge and expertise making far out of reach for a young teenager to form a band and live the rock star dream. The music was musically complicated and the lyrics mostly irrelevant to the dis enfranchised youth. Joe Strummer of the Clash said “I felt musicans were a world apart � a secret society I could never join so I didn’t bother to try until I was to old” (175 )Stazmary.

The acid hippy movement drew on a number of predecssors for inspiration.

Many of the musicans had been involved in the folk music. Like Hippy music the more earnest folk scene had been hostile to the establishment. Many of these ideas were carried on and directly influenced the new style of music. Gerry Garcia of of the longest serving acid rock bands, the grateful dead, commented on the influence stating, “Here on the west coast, the guys that are into rock and roll music have mostly come up like I have through folk music” (118 Stazmary). Acid music also used more rock and roll and bluesy styles. “unlike the mild mannered drone of Dylan these reborn folkies ampliefied their message glass shattering levels”(118 Stazmary)

In the 50’s San Francisco had been one of the many homes to the Beat largely a lierary movemenmt that lived a bohemian existence and was fed up with the bordem of mainstream living. There ideals of spirituality and their use of drugs beacmae a dominant feature of the hippy lifestyle . A number of key beat writers were to heavily influence the scene. Allen Ginsberg was an organizer of ‘Human Be in’ in Golden Gate Park in 167. a huge musical and poerty festival. While perhaps more importantly Ken Kesy a beat writer was responsible for the Kool Aid Acid Test which practically introduced San Francisico to LSD.

Both drugs used by the two scenes seem to characterize and illustrate a number of differences to the two. Acid and Marajuana were the drugs of choice for the hippies it was a major factor and influence on the scene. “drugs were seen as a search for enlightment and an escapre from the oppressive elements of straight society” (11, Frielander). As Bass player for Big Brother and the holding company said most people “came to be hippies through drugs” (Dancing in the street). Drugs also influenced the way the audianced listened and responed to the music. As seen in the the Human Be ins the musicans wanted to break down the distinction between the audience and the band. The idea was for the band and the audience alike to take a voyage of self discovery together, it was a drug induced intellectual experience. The Punk movement on the other hand into was more into heroin and amphetamines, more of a physical than a mind altering drug. Rarther trying to create a communal environment for the audience the Punks set to directly confront and shock. John Lydons icy stares would attempt to put the audience on edge and on a number of occasions he urinated on the crowd. An article describing a Sex Pistols show stated “Rotten just hangs from the Mike stand rips open a can of beer and burns the crowd with taunting, cynical eyes….he looks like an anphetmine corpse”( Chambers 180).

Unlike the spiritual journey taken by fans of bands like Greatful Dead and Jefferson Airplane. Punk, characterized by the pogo dance, had a more physical interaction with the audience. “Punks attention to the Human frame, singualry concentrated in it’s abrasive vocal and instrunmnetal encounter …..back towards the ambiguities of the body”

the English Punks found their inspiration oversee’s. For them it was the New York sound of the Patti Smith Televison and the Ramones The idea of simplistic music was taken from new York and added upon. . Malcom Mc Alren (Dancing in the streets) tells of how he brought back the fashions their ideas and most importantly their style of music back to London where he opned a shop entitled sex selling the pvc rubber clothes made famous by the punks. The shop became a hang out for as he put it “the dispoceesed fans …who were looking for their own music”

And dispocessed they were, Between 174 and 177 the unemployment rate shot up 10 per cent. For many it deffinatley seemed like there was ‘no future’. “It was the marganalised vestmentsthe lumpen proatetariet” (Chambers 181) that punk first appealed to.

The hippies however were as Hunter S. Thompson said were white and voluntarily poor they had all gone to college o

The hippies were focused on becming creating a world of beauty

Were from the underclass lumnpen. Not university unemployment

Body movment

The main influences on the psycadelic movement of the sixties are the folk scene and rythum and blues and the folk movement. Geery Garcia’s quote. Beat generation and Rythum and blues combnation of them all.

What they wanted to be like musically.

“Detoiating British econmy” 175 rocking in time.

San fran had always been ecdcentric.

London poor

Genre’s had both of these. Hippies were inspiring against pretty love songs Grace slick. Punks against mass produced rock shows that had become boring.

Hi[[ies influenced by beat folk, ryhum blues. Took the folk sentiment and added noisy gitars. Quote from Gerry Garcia.

Punk influnced by new york. Patti Smith.



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Thursday, May 17, 2012

Early Colonization

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Throughout history people have been known to flee their homes for even the most insubstantial opportunity of becoming something greater. Migration patterns have a major effect on the outcome, whether it be success or failure.


In Document a list predominantly consisting of males, with a small number of women is given concerning the immigrants who came were on their way from New England to the New World. . When the colonists arrived at their destination troubles between themselves immediately arose. The settlers were a group of young men that had no bonds to one another much less respect. They did not have a family to provide for, or anyone to answer to in terms their responsibilities. They were restless and shared no common sense of purpose or goal. The main purpose of their agitation was the lack of jobs. Young energetic men tend to become frantic when their energy is not put to use. In England they were accustomed to work only for a certain amount of time, but now in the Americas this system of labor wouldn’t suffice. The fact that not many women inhabited the area did not facilitate their spirit. Incidentally, leaders of the colony did poorly in the upbringing of Virginia. They sought personal gain and were too preoccupied with their own matters, while the colony suffered from starvation, attacks by Native Americans, poverty and disease.


Document 1 provides another list (proving names and ages of emigrants from Virginia), but this one consisting of a much wider range of ages and a more balanced ratio of men to women. This group of settlers migrated in groups of nuclear families, giving them an instant link to one another. Virginians traveled to the New World seeking soul redemption, being religious fanatics. When they were reached what would be the Massachusetts Bay Colony they shared a common logic of harmony. Not only this, but unlike their New England counterparts, they survived. Their low mortality rate was due to cleaner environment (water) and their belief of the covenant that existed between them and God. The “agreement” was that so long as the colonists abided by the Scriptures and presented and example to other Christians their town would prosper.





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ALCOHOLISM AS A DISEASE

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ALCOHOLISM AS A DISEASE


The overall objective of this research paper is to identify and address those aspects of alcoholism, which contribute to it as a medical disease. True, alcoholism has many ramifications for society as well as the economy, but the focus of this paper shall be, for the most part, on the medical aspects. In the way of background, alcoholism refers to the drinking of alcoholic beverages to such a degree that major aspects of the individual’s life -such as work, school, family relationships or personal safety and health, above all, are


seriously and repeatedly interfered with. Alcoholism is considered a disease, meaning that it follows a characteristic course with known physical, psychological, and social systems. The alcoholic continues to consume alcohol despite the destructive consequences. Alcoholism is serious, progressive, and irreversible. If not treated, it can be fatal. It is generally thought that once the disease has developed, the alcoholic will not drink normally again. An alcoholic who abstains from drinking, however, can regain control over the aspects of life with which alcohol interfered. The alcoholic is then said to be “recovering” not “cured” of the disease. It is important to note that the particular symptoms and pattern of drinking problems may vary with the individual. Alcoholism is, therefore, a very complex disorder, and it is this very complexity which has led some recent researchers to question the accuracy of the disease concept of alcoholism. A person does not have to drink every day to be an alcoholic. Moreover, someone who drinks frequently, or sometimes gets drunk is not necessarily an alcoholic. It is possible to abuse alcohol for a short or contained period of time without developing alcoholism. For example, some people may drink abusively during a personal crisis and then resume normal drinking. College students tend to drink more heavily than other age groups. It is often difficult to distinguish such heavy and abusive drinking from the early stages of alcoholism. How well the person


can tolerate giving up alcohol for an extended time, and the effect of the drinking on family, friends, work, and health, may indicate the extent of the alcoholic’s problem. More than ten million Americans are estimated to be alcoholics. Alcoholism is found among all age, social, cultural, and economic groups. In terms of its symptoms and causes, which is more in the medical tract, I feel, some common signs of alcoholism in the early stages are constant drinking for relief of personal problems, an increase in a person’s tolerance for alcohol, onset of memory lapses while drinking, (“blackouts”), surreptitious drinking, and an urgent need for the first drink (“craving”). In the middle and late phases, dependence on drinking increases and memory blackouts become more frequently. A physical dependence on alcohol first appears with early warning tremors and agitation that require a drink for relief. In the late stage, drinking bouts are usually very frequent. There is an acute withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremors or DT’s, when drinking ceases. This includes agitation, tremors, hallucinations and possibly seizures. (American Medical Association, p.7)


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As this author is primarily concerned with the relationship between medical diseases and alcoholism, I should like to focus my attention at this time towards this topic. For example, recent studies have raised questions about the role that dietary fat and cholesterol play in cardiovascular disease, the number one killer of American citizens. Can low cholesterol be unhealthy? Certainly it has been established that high cholesterol can, at least the bad cholesterol. Some studies found that people with the lowest cholesterol levels were less likely to die of coronary heart disease than people with higher cholesterol levels but they had higher mortality rates from other causes, such as lung cancer, digestive diseases and accidents. However, there is no evidence that low cholesterol causes diseases, according to Dr. Rosser. He speculates that very low levels may result from health problems, such as cancers, liver disease and alcoholism. (Michaels, p. 4)


At this point, I should state that new research into alcoholism, and particularly its relationships to medical diseases, are ongoing. For example, new research into the baffling causes of alcoholism is revealing even deeper clues that it is largely in the genes. Researchers are making headway in their search for genetic markers that can predict whether an individual is predisposed to alcoholism. If they succeed, children of alcoholics could be warned. A recent discovery by researchers at the University of California’s Ernest


Gallow Clinic And Research Center in San Francisco may help identify potential alcoholics. Led by Dr. Ivan Diamond, a team collected white blood cells from alcoholics and non-alcoholics. They cultivated six generations of cells and compared the two groups. Those from alcoholics showed significantly higher levels of a messenger molecule that alters cell activity. Says Diamond “This suggests there is a biochemical marker that can actually distinguish alcoholics from the rest of the population.” The Gallow scientists are now


examining the cells of children of alcoholics to see if they can find conclusive prove that alcoholism is hereditary as previous research had suggested. The studies, says Dr. Carlton Erickson, executive director of the Texas Research Society On Alcoholism in Austin, “Enhanced evidence that alcoholism is a disease, not a character defect.” The American Medical Association and many others already believe this. Conclusive proof, however, will be needed to convince the doubtful. (Hiroshi, p.8) With the American Medical Association


(AMA) behind the belief that there exists a direct causal relationship between alcohol and medical problems, much research is continuing in this vain. Many agree that more money needs to be spend on research, and I agree that this would have many benefits. For example, alcoholism has clearly impacted society in a most deleterious manner, with corporate America experiencing the highest rate of absenteeism than it has ever before, thus costing both corporate America as well as the taxpayers hundreds of billions of dollars yearly.


Similarly, many biological afflictions are clearly associated with alcohol, from brain disorders, to cirrhosis, to circulatory disorders, etc.


It is my belief that individual case studies tend to bring the problem home. This problem, i.e. alcoholism, (and especially its medical consequences) has been researched and researched ad infinitum. It continues to, at this writing, and no doubt will indefinitely continue to be a subject of ongoing research. However, individual case studies do tend to bring the larger theoretical or broad based understanding of alcoholism home, to which I should like to cite one of the more salient.


Citing one case study, you would have to be an opposing pitcher still carrying a grudge to wish anything but the best for New York Yankee’s slugger Mickey Mantle during his recovery from an emergency liver transplant in Dallas. But ‘The Mick’s’ exploits with the bottle are as legendary as those with the bat, raised the question of whether an alcoholic, even a recovered alcoholic - - should get the same consideration for a liver transplant as a patient with a more conventional lifestyle. Gut reactions aside, there is one viable conclusion. Dangerous behavior, provided it is in the past - - should play no part in transplant decisions. Medical ethicists decided long ago that a patient’s social worth is irrelevant. The prospects for improvement in a patient’s health should be the only criterion. In short, it is the future, not the past that counts. Mantle’s case study shows why. Competition for organs is intense. Last year, 674 patients died while waiting for a liver, while ,650 succeeded. Candidates are rated according to the severity of their conditions by the United Network For Organ Sharing in Richmond, Virginia. When organs become available, they are allocated as close to where the donor is as possible, by matching blood types, size and compatibility. Patients in the worst condition gets treated first. That is why Mantle, who had two weeks to live, got to replace a liver damaged by cancer, hepatitis and forty years of drinking. He was the first patient with the most urgent need. Furthermore, his past drinking is not a good indicator of his future prospects. Studies, including one by Dr. Ruud A. F. Krom at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., show that the chances for short and long term success are about the same for patients transplanted for alcohol liver disease and those for other liver diseases. Physicians and hospitals try to guard against future abuse. They treat transplant patients before they are put in line for new livers. Patients are interviewed by physicians, substance abuse counselors, social workers and psychiatrists. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, a major transplant center requires alcohol abusers to abstain for six months before it will put them on a waiting list. But punishing patients for their past is taboo. And good reason…if patients with a history of alcoholism are automatically disqualified for a transplant today, what next? Tomorrow people who have quite smoking could be denied lung transplants, those who let their weight get out of hand could be denied new hearts. (Schwartz, p.B-14) Today, there are really no rigid guidelines, at least according to medical ethicists. There do not exist any kind of punitive disqualification of people with alcoholism, but the decision as to who will live and who will die largely lay within the purview of the judgement of local physicians and transplants centers.


Alcoholism has a direct relationship to medical and physical diseases, as previously indicated. Similarly, it is also a source of problems such as domestic violence, fatal car accidents, child abuse, and whole litany of other problems. Although the focus of this research paper has been on the medical relationship to alcoholism, it is undeniable that these other problems, although not immediately ‘medically relative,’ do in fact portend emotional and physical medical maladies for many individuals who suffer both directly and indirectly from alcoholism i.e. parents, friends, etc. At any rate, there is no doubt that much more research needs to be done on this subject. Many have speculated that alcoholism may be a genetic disease, rather than an environmental one. At the same time, the complexity of alcoholism and disease portends so many ramifications, that far more research needs to be done in this area, and indeed as in centuries, even millenniums gone by, there is little doubt that individuals will continue to imbibe, and even abuse alcohol.


AMA Handbook on Alcoholism, pub. 187; repr.


14, Bureau Development Inc., Parsippany, Inc.


Hiroshi, Katayma, “Alcoholics Chips Off The Old Block,” Fortune,


1 December, 188


Michaels, Evelyn, “The Fat and Cholesterol Debate,” Vol. 67,


Chatelaline, 1 May, 14


Schwartz, Harry, “Today’s Debate Organ Donation,” U.S.A. Today,


, June 15


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Wednesday, May 16, 2012

Kodak

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To compete in todays world, we needed a business model that allows us to make full use of our assets. These changes put us on a path to achieving that goal. - Kodak Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Daniel A. Carp.


BACKGROUND


The Eastman Kodak Company was founded in 1880 as a full-service photography company, manufacturing cameras and film that the customer returned to Kodak for processing and printing. The company now employs approximately 100,000 people worldwide, with approximately ,000 of those in the Rochester, NY, area.


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PAST PROBLEMS


Kodak’s problems included


· Unrelated diversification;


· Long-term under-performance in its core businesses; and


· Poor long-term strategy.


CURRENT STRATEGY


Kodak’s goal is to be the number one or number two positions in markets where rates of return consistently exceed the cost of capital. In 001 Kodak announced a new strategy to tackle digital imaging head on. Their action is based on the knowledge that demand for traditional products is declining, especially in developed markets. Kodak’s chairman and chief executive Daniel Carp had the following to say on this topic, Given this reality, we are moving fast - as digital markets demand - to transform our business portfolio, with an emphasis on digital commercial markets. The digital world is full of opportunity for Kodak, and we intend to lead it, as we have led innovation in the imaging industry for more than a century.


PAST ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE


Previously, businesses shared those responsibilities, which affect sales and earnings with the companys Global Operations division and other corporate-wide departments, an arrangement that increased complexity and cost while reducing accountability. This structure could be considered a bureaucracy approach, which has certain shortfalls such as functional unit goals can override the overall goals of the organization and obsessive concern with following the rules.


NEW ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE


In the new model, resources will flow to those product groups that have the greatest opportunity to generate profitable growth, and businesses will become more vertically integrated, giving them more control over how they spend their money. This new product- and market-focused model aligns natural teams for addressing customer needs, eliminates organizational silos, and pulls together functions that previously were spread across the businesses.


Specifically, the changes include aggressively managing the business portfolio with an increased focus on product performance; instituting a vertical operating model that reduces complexity and gives businesses more decision-making authority; and realigning Kodaks businesses so that opportunities to accelerate growth and reduce costs are more easily captured. Instead of the varied and complex sharing arrangements of the past, the new model gives business groups and product managers authority for making those decisions that have the biggest influence on generating profitable growth.


Under this new model, the businesses will be more responsible for managing those activities that affect sales and earnings, such as supply chain management, inventory, administrative spending, marketing and customer-service activities. In the new model, the Global Operations organization and most of its functions will be integrated into the business groups.


This new organizational structure constitutes that of a team structure, which entails the use of teams as the central device to coordinate work activities.


ASSESSMENT


Kodak’s current approach of a team structure will assist them to contribute to their corporate strategy as it liberates them from all the bureaucratic red-tape and allows them to focus on the business as hand, which is to be number one or number two positions in markets where rates of return consistently exceed the cost of capital.


A word of caution though, Kodak should avoid the hang-ups of a bureaucracy as a team structure is linked to this approach as it is similar to bureaucracy, but offers the flexibility that a team provides. With a team structure Kodak should reap the rewards and with the right personnel that they recruit, such as Pat Russo as President and Chief Operating Officer, assists them in having the “right people” tackling the task at hand.





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Discuss the effect of homelessness on the lives of young people and evaluate how well current policy supports these children and their families.

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Whether the child’s homeless condition is one where they are on the streets or in temporary or deficient housing, the effect of this homeless state causes many different degrees of retardation on the child’s development.


The effects of homelessness begin when the child’s family first begins to struggle with the payments on the family home. This could be a result of being unable to pay mortgage repayments, causing mortgage arrears and house repossessions; or unable to keep up with the rent payments. The child and the family lose their homes and a high percentage of these families are placed into temporary accommodation where there could be problems with overcrowding, lack of play area, cold and dampness and lack of a nutritious diet. Families can be moved several times causing the family and the child to become stress and anxious, the child feels uncertain about the future.


“The experience of homelessness can be broken down into three distinct phases the initial loss or the threat of the loss of one’s home; the transitory phase of moving into council accommodation (often temporary); and the final stage of being allocated a permanent tenancy, most often in a council or housing association property.” (Daniel and Ivatts 18)


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Children become involved in the stress and emotional trauma of the family around them. At the time of repossession and re-housing, the family and social networks the child has are put under strain and even broken. The sometimes sudden moves families are made to make create a feeling of not belonging and unable to settle into a place of their own.


The temporary housing the family is placed in is usually cramped, with a lack of space to play or create in. The possible overcrowding can cause friction between family members and the atmosphere the children grow up in is one of unrest and insecurities. Unable to create or play causes an effect on the intellectual development of the child. Having no access to toys or the freedom to ‘make believe’ in a garden is not available. The child’s language, sociability, physical and emotional skills and development is left with unmet potential.


Children suffer psychologically from homelessness, varying from the unsettled environment caused by constant change and upheaval, to the stress’s and anxieties displayed by the parents, which in cramped living conditions is hard to hide from the children. There may be relationship breakdowns and conflicts due to the stress and living conditions.


In temporary accommodation there is the issue of health and safety problems. The housing offered to the family may be poorly heated and damp possibly contributing to respiratory problems. There may be more falls, burns and accidents in the home; there is nowhere safe outside for the child to play so they are kept inside. The child wants to be energetic but there is no space available for them to be free in and play safely, the options are to stop playing inside possibly causing physical, intellectual and emotional developmental problems, or to play inside or outside but be prone to many accidents. The child’s health is affected by lack of sleep due to shared housing or anxieties of the families’ situation. Poor diet from a low income or from the housing itself (bed and breakfast accommodation). They can suffer form over activity, depression and even aggression as an outlet of their emotions.


There is evidence of increased mental physical, and obstetric ill health compared to the housed populations, and there are many clinical reports of increased ill health and behavioral problems especially among the children. (Royal college of physicians 14)


The restricted development of the child in temporary housing causes an effect on their education. Their intellectual development is not allowed to mature, so when entering education they may not have developed as much as housed children. E.g./ socially, emotionally and intellectually.


The problems with education are not all with stunted development, but also other factors such as lack of sleep, health problems and little motivation to go to school. Constant moves and readjustment breaks off any friendships the child may have made. New schools means having to start again and having to make new friends, there may be difficulties in studying at home and finishing work, and the child will have to maintain continuity in the curriculum. Coming from low-income families can create a stigma and the child may be subject to bullying. Entering a school at an awkward time may mean the family has little choice as to where they can send their child; this is because the best schools will probably already be full. The child may have behavioral problems and their attendance will not be perfect.


Homelessness effects the child’s overall development and can change the life of a child and will have many long lasting effects in some area of that child’s life.


Policies put in place to help families in this situation are trying to help reduce the number of homeless households placed in B&B accommodation and ensure that no homeless family with children has to live in a B&B hotel except in an emergency, and even then for no more than 6 weeks. There is more Social housing being provided as this type of accommodation has a vital role to play in providing an affordable alternative for those who do not aspire, or cannot afford, to own or rent a home in the private sector.


These policies try to prevent homelessness by offering advice and support to enable people to stay in their homes, including those for whom the council has no housing duty; there are cost effective services to respond to those people who do become homeless; and are aiming to minimize homelessness in the longer term through interagency working to develop and implement homelessness strategies. These policies will hopefully help families stay together in a home which they all enjoy living in and is home of decent standard.





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Tuesday, May 15, 2012

Comparative Essay of Jung Chang's "Wild Swans" and Nien Cheng's "Life and Death in Shanghai"

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It is apparent to the readers of both Wild Swans and Life and Death in Shanghai that there are similarities and mostly differences concerning the treatment of Jung Chang and Nien Cheng along with their families.


Though both stories are regarding the Chinese Cultural Revolution, the two accounts are very different experiences and the narrative is told in two different perspectives.


Both women and their families were both comprised into the revolution, but it clearly becomes evident that the two different accounts are treated differently under the same supreme ruler and the readers have the opportunity to observe the corrupt political situation the nation was endured in.


However different the stories are, there a few similarities if both stories are held in comparison. As the differences hold great importance to evaluate the stories of Jung Chang and Nien Cheng, the similarities are perhaps more significant as they outline the demeanor of both accounts and withhold the moderate key to reason with why these two women had to witness a big event in history, yet one that would scar their lives forever.


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Nien Cheng was considered to be a “class enemy”. This was brought upon for many reasons such as being educated in England, marrying a rich man who worked with her along side her for Shell (a multinational oil company), being wealthy and enjoying the fine luxuries that the Western society culture had to offer. However, for Jung Chang, she was the daughter of two officials of the Communist Party in China and was not accused of being a capitalist as her family held status in their society and was working under the supreme Chairman Mao.


Though both families had their wealthy status in common…. the Chang family was rich too, and like Nien Cheng, enjoyed the finer things in life. Though this was completely defining the philosophy of Communism of having equality, no body accused the Chang family like they did to Nien Cheng.


Nien Cheng was an obvious target for the destructive and violent organization of high school students, known as the Red Guards. The Red Guards were organization groups spread throughout China who had a mission to destroy all the “class enemies” with Mao’s support of course. Nien Cheng was selected as a “class enemy” purely because of her past and wealth. Her past in particular was used against her to accuse her of decadent crimes that labeled her an evil capitalist. She was accused of being a descendant of a big landlord family and that her father was a senior official of the pre-Kuomintang government. Because of her education in England, she was said to be “trained by the British to be a faithful running dog” in one of their universities. Cheng’s husband was also a subjected to her situation and was described as “fortunate to have died and escaped judgment by the Revolutionaries.” On the night that the Red Guards invaded Nien Cheng’s property and put her onto house arrest, they claimed her house was a “luxury.” This was clearly a defiant towards the laws of Communism. Cheng was also accused of trying to “undermine” their “revolutionary activities” by fighting back and trying to “preserve old culture.” The revolutionary also claimed that Cheng to be extremely stubborn and arrogant and outrageously accused her of keeping a “wild animal” in the house to attack the revolutionaries. However, Nien was not allowed to defend herself against the allegations, her only choice was to confess or die. Cheng was very brave and stood her ground claming that she was not guilty and had nothing to confess.


It is very obvious that Nien suffered greatly during this time and received the most appalling and unfair treatment. Nien was venerable to the destructible Red Guards and their “punishments” were inevitable based on Nien’s life and suffered great humiliation and disgrace by the “revolutionary actions.” Due to the ignorant high school children that interrupted Nien’s once peaceful existence, she had a long journey that consisted on pain, misery, physical and mental abuse that was evidently very difficult to tolerate.


Jung Chang’s account was very different to Nien’s account. She was not victimized by the Red Guards; she was infact apart of the organization. However, Chang was seen as a “softie” and was often ridiculed for this as she had to be more aggressive and more forceful to fit the criteria of a Red Guard. However much she was criticized though, nobody ever took action against her. This was due to her parents positions as officials for the communist party. The Chang family was very fortunate to hold this status in their society as many others were turned against and accused of outlandish crimes. Though Chang’s treatment greatly differed to that of Nien Cheng, she still bears the scars of mental abuse.


Subsequent to joining the Red Guards, Chang wanted to prove to herself and her piers that she could fit the position of her rank. The Red Guards opened a door to Chang that would affect her life, though she would only realize this later on in life, after her escape from China. She was exposed to the cruel demeanor and reality behind the Red Guards;


They were merely High School Students, who held Chairman Mao’s approval to go out and terrorize many innocents, mock them and horrifically torment them. This exposure left many questions within Chang. However, she very quickly learnt to suppress her thoughts as she believed that whatever Mao thought was good must be alright. This is very damaging to her frame of mind as they believed that she was not tolerant to be asking unanswered questions and feeling emotions of horror and remorse towards her fellow Red Guards. Chang would be mentally scared in this perspective as her character later on in the duration of her life could be affected greatly, and she would always have mental torture to remain with her. Chang makes it very apparent that at the time of the Revolution, she did not wish for the violence and unjust actions to be carried out, but her mind was suppressed and perhaps too “brainwashed” to believe in her morality and have her own mind.


The Cultural Revolution hit the Chang family hard. No body was prepared for it and did not know what to do when it arrived. Perhaps, the only thing Jung Chang and her generation of children could hold onto was persuasion from Mao which was fulfilling her with vitality. But nether less, Chang suffered great mental distress and had signals of trepidation in the duration of the Cultural Revolution.


Nien Cheng was detained as a prisoner in 167 and remained in the penitentiary (which had appalling living conditions) for 6.5 years upon her release in March 17. It is substantial to the readers of her text that this is where Nien Cheng suffered the most horrific treatment yet. She suffered physical abuse from the guards in order to provoke her to “confess” her “crimes.” She was the cuffed as her “punishment.” She also experienced very bad health in the 6.5 years duration as she came down with a bad case of pneumonia which marked the beginning of her serious physical deterioration. She was in lack of nutritious food, sunshine and fresh air which caused her body’s aging process to speed up quicker. This also reduced her mental powers to such an extent that she found it difficult to concentrate on one subject for too long. This prospect frightened Nien Cheng very much. She received very vile treatment while she served time in the prison and paid dearly with her evident mental and physical stress.


However, ultimately, Nien Cheng was realized as she was stated to be politically backward and ignorant… therefore allowing her to leave the detention house as a free person. Yet this remarkable woman refused by stating that she could not accept the conclusion as it did not declare her innocence of any crime and no apology and rehabilitation was acknowledged. Nien suffered greatly during this time upon her release. The stress imposed on her was shocking and would be suspected to be a great strain on her life currently.


Although how different both accounts were, there are a few similarities that connect these two texts together. Such as both women telling their stories in the duration of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. They were both subjected to Chairman Mao and his followers, and both suffered under the intense conditions.


Both women recall their accounts with great accuracy and raw material they visual out to their readers. The readers are left to feel that both women can relate to each other’s account as they both tell their stories with (perhaps) dismay, but yet passion and wanted awareness. Both women suffered under Mao’s leadership and authority and it is very substantial that the montague to each story is effective and could easily link in with one another as both are quite similar in the perspective that Nien Cheng and Jung Chang witnessed the Cultural Revolution before their very eyes.


I believe that these two women were differently treated due to their family circumstances. The Chang family held status in their community and had involvement in the Communist party, so Jung was therefore treated with respect and not besieged by the “capitalist hunters.” And I believe that it is undeniably true to say that Nien Cheng was treated so badly because she was educated in England, was working for Shell, was wealthy and enjoyed the Western Society Culture. She was an obvious target for the Red Guards to accuse of being a Capitalist.


It is very undemanding for the readers of both texts to suggest that Chang did not experience most of the pain due to appalling treatment that Nien Cheng would have endured. It is correct to state that both accounts are very different, yet tell a different story to two different women and their families.


Yet these differences still don’t succeed over the obvious similarities that are analyzed by the readers of both texts.


And therefore for these reasons it is appropriate to suggest that Nien Cheng and Jung Chang evidently experienced stories in the interval of the Chinese Cultural Revolution and accounted for many similarities and differences.





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Hitlers Germany

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Some races are better than others? Germans who belong to the Aryan race must keep themselves pure in order to become the ‘master’ race?” Are these the wise words of a great German dictator or the harsh words of an evil man whose hatred enabled him to kill more than 0 million people?


Adolf Hitler was born on 0 April 188, in Braunau. He was the rd child of his parents Alois and Klara.


He was an able boy and did well in primary school, but at secondary school it was a different matter. A common comment on his reports was unsatisfactory. He left school at the age of 16 with hopes of becoming an artist. He applied at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts to complete his ambition to become and artist, but the academy turned him down because of the poor marks he received in secondary school. Hitler describes the next 5 years of his life as years of hardship and misery, but during those 5 years he became interested in politics. He supported nationalist parties, which wanted to make Austria more powerful. Hitler then began to hate people of a foreign race, especially the Jews. He thought the Jewish people were ruining the life and culture of his country. He claimed they were the biggest threat to the purity of the German. They were involved in a great conspiracy to take control of the world. They helped to bring about Germany’s defeat in the Great War; therefor Hitler wanted all Jews destroyed. But what attracted people to Hitler and the Nazi Party? Jews were not socially acceptable. Hitler didn’t even consider the Jews to be human beings so Jews who had jobs in the civil services or law lost their job. All Jewish shops were marked with a yellow star, and Jews who were in the park, train or bus had to stand or sit on separate seats. The Jewish population then had their German citizenship taken away. In many town Jews found it hard to buy groceries, medicine and be accepted in streets around Germany. Wherever the Jews went there were mocking signs about them. But this was all beneficial to the Nazi supporters. The Nazi Party gave jobs to those who showed pride to the swastika. The Nazi’s offered them better welfare services, cheap houses, and even cheap holiday’s abroad. Hitler even organized a people’s car to be made at a price anyone could afford. He named this car the Volkswagen.





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Please note that this sample paper on Hitlers Germany is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Hitlers Germany, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Hitlers Germany will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Monday, May 14, 2012

me without you

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This movie was a good movie. Me without you tests friendship of Holly and Marina. Cat jumped out of the window. The mice followed her. I am sitting in student center typing this because I need my free essay very soon. Nick is a good guy but I was in love with Mike and always will be. He isnt at the gym today, he was probably here yesterday. I live on high street and thats a lot of fun. Ohio State campus is a great area to live at because of all the great parties. Well I have around eughty words now. I have to write about something else now and nothing comes to mind. The student center is empty today, its me and the girl who is working here and the tv is on. Stepmom is playing in the other room. I got to do my surface homework for Tuesday and then I got to go home and get something to eat. Im so hungry. Thats over a hundred words. What else? Have to do my spring line for next Thursday and have to get a fashion magazine for Fashion Illustration class. Almost there, just a few more words. Its so hot outside, noones around the dorms. Its a usual quiet Sunday. Rob is having a party tonight so I might go to that and I might not. Lets see how many more words we got to write. The spring 004 schedule is sitting on the desk. I am picking some fun classes and only 1 credits maximum. That way I still have a lot of free time. This should do it. The students center is nice, theres somebody sitting next to me and he is doing his homework while Im writing this crap.


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foreign currency

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Question 1.


Part a.


1. Manque is exposed to types of foreign currency risk


· Transaction Exposure Transaction exposure is associated with movements in exchange rates where cash flows that result from existing activities are paid in a different currency to that in which the contracted payment is made. Manque is engaged in fixed-price contracts billed in local currencies, but the consultants who carry out the work are paid in Sterling. If Sterling rises against the local currency then Manque’s profit margins are squeezed, conversely, if Sterling falls then Manque stands to gain.


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· Translation Exposure Translation exposure or accounting exposure occurs when a foreign subsidiary has to prepare accounts for its parent company. The cash flows have to be converted into the currency of the parent company which can lead to a distortion of the cash flows either through changing exchange rates or differing accounting practices. Manque has subsidiary companies in Germany, France, Russia and Hong Kong � each of these countries differs from the UK in either the market or accounting practices.


· Economic exposure Economic exposure describes the measure of change in the present value of a firm that results from a change in future operating cash flows caused by an unexpected variance in exchange rates. According to Eitman et al (15) the change in value depends on the effect of the exchange rate change on future sales volume, price or costs. Manque has subsidiaries in 4 countries, of which are outside the EU, and 1 of which, Russia, operates in a relatively unregulated fashion in matters of business finance, as well as being potentially more unstable politically. A sudden devaluing of the Rouble is probably more likely than that of the European currencies, therefore, that market may be considered to carry more Economic risk than France or Germany.


Part b.


Quantify the risk


· The Finance Director stated that traditionally the directors of Manque have been risk averse; therefore they have not wished to become involved in foreign exchange dealings and have not undertaken any hedging. In having 4 subsidiary companies procurig cash flows in different foreign currencies, which are then converted to Sterling it should be pointed out that Manque is already engaged in foreign exchange dealings. In not hedging its currency flows, Manque’s financial policy is divergent from the wishes of the directors who wish to avoid risk.


· Risk is not necessarily a negative concept. It can be viewed as a quantified boundary around uncertainty, which is measured by looking at the past. For example, Manque is exposed to types of foreign currency risk, this can be viewed as systematic risk that is associated with Manque’s method of operation. The unsystematic risk that Manque’s Directors may be averse to is that they cannot accurately predict the effect that foreign exchange risk will have on their results.


· There are several strategies that can be employed to reduce unsystematic risk and hedging is one of them. However, as there is the possibility that Manque may become listed, the Directors may wish to consider whether a higher-risk company with an associated higher return is more attractive to shareholders than a low-risk company that may be competing with blue chip companies for investors’ attention.


· The Finance Director had been informed that losses and gains on hedging currency flows evened themselves out eventually. Many British companies use this reason not to hedge their foreign currency risk as hedging requires management resource and funding. However, to be statistically sound this belief assumes a long-term view over business with many transactions. It is also statistically skewed by unsystematic risk such as September 11, the expiry of the Hong Kong lease, German reunification or default of payments by Russian banks. If Manque’s Directors wanted to follow a risk-averse strategy they may wish to consider hedging as a means of predicting their financial results more accurately.


· The Bank manager’s offer to restructure the way in which the overseas subsidiaries are funded may have some merit if there was a requirement to fund them. However, such a benefit would only accrue if there was actually a need to finance the subsidiaries from the parent company. There is not enough detail in the brief to give a definitive answer, but if Manque is seeking to raise share capital, thus funding its activities through equity, there must be a question as to why Manque would want to take on additional debt as well. The bank manager will earn commission for his bank on any arrangement he makes and this may not necessarily be in the best interests of Manque.


· The Finance Director alluded to the possibility of shareholders hedging for themselves, thus negating the need for Manque to do so. Any risk spreading activities that the shareholders may carry out would be as part of an overall portfolio balancing exercise to gain maximum benefit for least risk. The level of risk that the shareholder indulged in would be an individual decision. The kind of risk management that Manque would carry out directly involved the cash flows that Manque’s Directors are responsible for managing. Manque’s future shareholders may wish Manque to be a relatively risk avers company, in which case the Directors would have a duty to maximise the value of the company, by hedging against potential losses if necessary. In any case, shareholders are likely to respond more favorably if there are fewer surprises in the yearly financial report- something which may become increasingly important if there are a few, but significant, institutional shareholders; indeed, they may insist on it.


Part c.


There are several techniques that can be used to manage foreign exchange exposure, of the ones to be discussed we can broadly divide them into internal and external techniques. Some authorities suggest that it is good practice to use as many internal techniques as possible before resorting to the external ones as the internal techniques are often cheaper and more effective.


Internal Techniques


· Matching. This technique requires a Group’s assets to be considered as a whole, rearranging the balance sheet to keep each subsidiary in balance as much as possible so as to avoid translation exposure before it happens. Sometimes, foreign currency borrowing can be used to match local long term assets with long term liabilities- the bank manager may allude to this technique. If, however, the stream of cash flows is mainly in one direction as in this case � to the UK then matching may not be a suitable technique.


External Techniques


· Invoicing in Sterling. This practice effectively shifts the foreign exchange risk to the customer overcoming Manque’s transaction exposure. The advantage to Manque is that the firm know precisely what its cash flows will be in relation to firm contracts. The effect on the customer is somewhat different. When Sterling is weak, then the firm price agreed will represent a competitive bid, but when Sterling is strong then the price becomes less competitive. If Sterling strengthens after the contract is let then the customer faces a climbing bill for services. As a significant amount of Manque’s business comes from tendering to Governments and there is a significant delay in tender to payment, then Manque may jeopardise their bid by invoicing in Sterling as some Government departments may risk-load their bid as part of the tendering process.


· Forward contracts. This is a contractually binding agreement to deliver a specified amount of one currency for a specified amount of another currency at some future date. The rates offered by the banks will be determined by the bond rate offered in the foreign currency to be exchanged and there will be a commission to pay to the bank. As Manque is aware of the cash flows it receives and the timescales upon contract agreement, forward contracts offer a way of effectively forecasting the Sterling cash inflows. However, should Sterling weaken from contract letting day to payment, then Manque will fail to benefit from the relative movement in exchange rates.


· Options. An option is a contract giving the owner the right, but not the obligation, to either buy or sell (in this case a currency) a given amount of currency for a fixed price on or before a given date. Although there is a premium to pay on the option itself, the option guarantees the owner a price on the currency with the added flexibility that they can exercise the option earlier than the expiry date, if the exchange rates move favourably, or let the option simply expire and use the spot rate if this works out to be more advantageous. In terms of risk, the option is little more than an insurance policy that iteslf can be insured by use of a straddle option. Options may require some management effort, but they are a flexible and risk-free option.


· Currency Swaps. These instruments are brokered agreements that bring together parties which require each other’s currencies. For the premium of an arrangement fee, equivalent amounts of currency can be swapped at the spot rate without paying foreign exchange commission. Currency swaps tend only to be made for very large amounts of money and they are made at prevailing rates. Thus, Manque’ problem of transaction exposure remains.


610 words from 500 � use of matrix


Question


Part a.


· Contingent risk is risk to which we become exposed only if we undertake an activity. For example, if a company tendered for a foreign contract paid in a foreign currency, then the company would only become exposed to the risks posed by the contract if it won the tender.


· A financial option is an instrument which enables contingent risk to be traded. When one party buys the right (but not obligation) to buy or sell shares (known as call and put options respectively) then they take on contingent risk only if they exercise their rights. Obviously, the right is only exercised if the outcome is a desired one; demonstrating that risk is not necessarily a negative phenomenon.


· Contingent risk is managed in this way each time household insurance is taken out. A company may wish to hedge foreign currency risk by taking out options to buy or sell currency at a certain rate in order to guarantee a forecasted income stream. If the currency price moves so that the result is in the money, the option owner can choose to exercise their right and so benefit from the contracted price. In this way, contingent risk only comes about because the option was exercised � the result was positive. If the currency values changes so that the transaction is out of the money, then the option owner may choose not to exercise their right thus avoiding a negative outcome. In the second example the contingent risk was avoided as the action that would have triggered it (exercising the option) did not take place.





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