Thursday, January 31, 2013

Hughes Use of Detail

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The Harlem Renaissance was powerfully remembered and embraced era in black history. “Theme for English B” published in 15 is a poem written by Langston Hughes in which a black student takes a basic writing assignment and uses it to voice about the struggle for equality during the time of the Harlem Renaissance. Hughes was notorious for writing poems about real life issues and experiences. Hughes’ voice grew in the black society as voice of the people because he expressed the difficulties and discrimination faced by him and the majority of blacks. Hughes uses vivid details in the work to describe the setting and personal characteristics of the narrator to present a realistic vision of the struggles of in society during the 10’s and 140’s. Hughes used these literary techniques to provide the reader with a complete visual of times in those days.

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Thursday, January 24, 2013

The Best Refuge For Insomniacs

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Landriault 1

Krista Landriault

Mrs. Lenti

ENG 4UL-01

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10 October 00

Analysis of “The Best Refuge For Insomniacs”

Lance Morrow’s essay “The Best Refuge For Insomniacs” explores the bare subject of reading. The author uses a structured organization of ideas with a serious and affectionate tone to produce a formal piece of writing; but personalizes it with a functional language style, first person point of view and an implied thesis. The author’s first purpose is to convince the reader of the comfort books can bring during troubling times, and his second purpose is to persuade the reader to find his or her own list of favorite books. Morrow achieves his twofold purpose through the use of emphasis and coherence.

The essayist uses emphasis to stress his bare subject and his purpose announcement of the thesis, principal idea, repetition of the main idea, and the use of intensified style. To begin, Morrow announces his thesis in a clear but implied manner “The calm and clarity of Cather’s prose stabilized the woman and helped her through the time.” In other words the calmness of reading prose supports troubled people. Thus, reading helps one through difficult times in life.

In addition to the thesis, Morrow employs a principal idea at the beginning and the end of his essay reading helps. He writes, “helped her through the time,” at the beginning of the essay and he includes “helps the mind through the black hours,” at the end of the essay. This principal idea is used to highlight how people use reading for solace. Therefore, through adding emphasis to his ideas Morrow powerfully conveys the message that reading helps individuals through hard times.

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Furthermore, Morrow utilizes repetition of the main idea to stress that reading helps one through difficult times. One repetition of this main idea is used to emphasize the value of reading as companionship “the books you keep for the middle of the night serve a deeply personal purpose, one of companionship.” Another repetition of the main idea is used to establish reading’s function of stabilization to a chaotic mind “Reading restores to the mind a stabilization of linear prose. . . .” Finally, a last repetition of the main idea is used to accentuate the security people find in reading books “I found shelter in books in the middle of the night.” Hence, repetition of the main idea emphasizes that reading helps the mind through hard times.

A final method that Morrow uses to achieve emphasis is intensified style. For example, a metaphor is employed to compare the news to a knife, “The global electronic collective, the knife of the news. . . .” In this quotation, the news (like other media) inflicts pain and discomfort on a troubled mind in contrast to reading that offers solace and refuge to a troubled mind. An additional metaphor is utilized to compare television to a microwave, “The medium is a microwave it makes reality taste wrong.” In this quotation, the microwave transforms food to be eaten in the same way that television transforms the mind because it does not support reality. A final example is a simile used to measure the alikeness between music and ice water, “music like bright ice water. . . .” In this quotation the author compares the coldness and awareness an individual obtains by encountering bright ice water to music which delivers the same attributes, as does reading. In summary, intensified style brings out the point the author is trying to make in a clear, strong manner.

In short, Lance Morrow has used four different methods to achieve emphasis � by announcing his thesis that reading stabilizes troubled minds, by placing the principal idea of help at the beginning and at the end of the essay, by repeating the main idea of reading, and by using intensified style devices like metaphors and similes. As well, Morrow uses coherence to relate

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the parts of the essay in a way that is clear to the reader transitions, parallel structure, echoing, and organization of ideas.

One way in which Morrow establishes coherence is through the use of transitions. For example, he uses a time transition, “Years ago,” to set up a personal example of when he turned to a history book to help him recover from surgery “Years ago, recovering from a heart operation, I read Shelby Foote’s three-volume history of the American Civil War. . . .” In another example Morrow writes, “In Vietnam the soldiers said, ‘he is a man you can walk down the road with.’” This place transition, “In Vietnam,” sets up the metaphor of companionship and its application to books. Finally, Morrow uses an example transition phrase, “for example,” to set up an example of how Mozart’s music brings the same effect as reading to a troubled mind “Mozart, for example music like bright ice water, or say, the memory of the serene Palladian lines of Jefferson’s Monticello.” In brief, Morrow uses time, place, and example transitions to establish coherence between ideas.

Coherence is further achieved through the use of parallel structure. One parallel structure is found in paragraph five “I mean the kind of reading one does to keep sane, to touch other intelligences, to absorb a little grace.” These parallel infinitive verb phrases qualify the kind of reading needed to help one through the night reading which provides sanity, intelligences, grace. In the same paragraph, Morrow uses parallel dependent clauses “In Vietnam the soldiers said, ‘He is a man you can walk down the road with,’” and “Every reader knows there are certain books you can go down the road with.” These parallel phrases reveal how books can be trusted and serve the role of companionship. As well, parallel structure is used in paragraph eleven “Wallace Stevens for his strange visual clarities, Robert Frost for his sly moral clarities, Walt Whitman for his spaciousness and energy.” These prepositional phrases offer stabilizing qualities that reading encompasses. In short, to further achieve coherence, Morrow uses parallel infinitive verb phrases, parallel dependent clauses, and parallel prepositional phrases.

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Finally coherence is achieved through echoing. For example, Morrow echoes the word “medium” “The medium is a microwave. . .”; “Dreams are not an electronic medium”; and “The medium destroys sequence.” This use of echoing draws attention to the medium of television with its subversion of reality in a discomforting manner. Another example is when the subject of war is echoed “In Vietnam the soldiers. . .”; “War (and television) shatters”; and “history of the American Civil War.” The idea of war brings an awareness of how, like television, war destroys the stability of the mind and sets it up for needing comfort. Lastly, Morrow echoes night and darkness “ in the morning. . .”; “the books you keep for the middle of the night”; “got through a tragic time by reading Dickens to each other every night; and “helps the mind through the black hours.” The author’s use of echoing shows how people use reading for comfort in the long hours of the night when they are lonely and uncomfortable. To summarize, Morrow echoes the words “medium”, “war”, and “night,” to emphasize how these discomforts bring chaos to the mind.

Overall, this essay is organized from general to specific to connect the ideas in a coherent manner. Morrow begins his essay with the announcement of the general thesis, “The calm and clarity of . . . stabilized . . . and helped [] through the time.” The medium of television is introduced as a counter-idea as it subverts reality in a discomforting manner and as a setup for the medium of reading. At this point in the essay, Morrow establishes his rationale � specific reasons to support the choice of reading as a source of comfort in difficult times “to keep sane, to tough other intelligences, to absorb a little grace” for companionship. Examples and allusions to specific texts are given to support these reasons. In the end, Morrow encourages the reader to find his/her own texts or even a different medium to help one through times of distress in life.

In summary, Lance Morrow has used four different methods to achieve coherence � by using transitions to connect his ideas, by using parallel structure to demonstrate how reading

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offers companionship, by echoing words to emphasize his ideas, and by organizing his ideas in a well formatted way.

In conclusion, Lance Morrow’s essay “The Best Refuge for Insomniacs,” is written to convince the reader of the comfort of prose that reading offers during difficult times, and to persuade the reader to find his or her own list of books. By using techniques of emphasis and coherence Morrow effectively explains the benefits that reading provides an individual.



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Wednesday, January 23, 2013

Pharmacy Internship

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I worked in the Rite Aid Pharmacy in Davis. My activities and assignments consisted of answering phones for the pharmacist, answering the drive-thru, talking with customers and getting their prescriptions for them, putting prescriptions that the pharmacist filled back on the shelves, learning prescriptions, filing, learning how to delete and add new prescriptions on the computer, faxing papers to doctors, and a lot more. I learned so much at this internship, more than at any other internship. Its really great how they associate us with everything in the pharmacy so that way if we want to work there as a part-time job, we will already be ready for that. I also noticed how a lot of customers tend to get very mad if there prescription is taking a while or if they don’t have them on record. I realized that the pharmacists have to deal with a lot of rude people and I saw how frustrating it can get but I watched how the pharmacists dealt with these kinds of issues in such a calm manor no matter how angry the customers got. I am very interested in doing pharmacy and this internship allowed me to get a better idea of what I am looking at for the future.

The knowledge that I gained about the pharmacy is that working as a pharmacist is not an easy job. It requires a lot of hard work and patience. I learnt about the way the pharmacists operate. I also found out that there is a lot of paperwork involved as well, which ends up taking a lot of time for the assistants. I helped out with the paper work a lot because I saw how much time it was taking up for the technicians when they were already so busy. I also realized how big of a thing organization is at a pharmacy. The prescriptions are all placed on the shelves by generic or brand name. The prescriptions are all filed in alphabetical order for the customers to come pick up. Organization is the key to pharmacy. If even just one paper is not filed correctly, it can cause a lot of problems causing customers to get very angry. No matter how much of a rush you are in, everything must be placed in its exact proper place before going on. I worked from -1 am every Friday. I loved working there. The pharmacy technicians and assistants were all extremely kind and showed me everything I needed to know about the pharmacy the minute they met me. They wanted me to get the most out of this internship that I could. It is people like these that make a person feel so comfortable and work well with the group that can make an internship so much better than it could be as opposed to people like at my internship last year that didn’t care to show me around and let me participate in anything. However, we do learn at every internship, some are better than others, but you always have to make the best of every possible situation and try to get the most learning experience as possible. I learnt a lot about the overall structure of the pharmacy and how the pharmacist’s work.

This internship helped me in terms of my future academic plans because I want to go into pharmacy and become a pharmacist. Working in the pharmacy got me oriented to what goes on and what the pharmacist’s daily lives are composed of. I know how the technicians and assistants work and what they do and I really came to appreciate how hard they work and how much they care about their customers. I met a lot of really nice assistants and I could see how much they cared about their customers. My expectations of the internship were certainly met and I gained even more knowledge than I thought I would. I was also able to work with the customers more closely than I thought that I would. That was a really good experience for me because I realized that I love working with the customers and getting to know them and making them feel better. It made me happy to make the customers feel better and to help the technicians whenever they needed it. My expectations of the supervisors were met as well. They were very friendly and energetic people who showed me that they really care about their customers. They were always willing to show me new things and help me to get oriented and give me directions anytime I needed them. I feel really lucky to have gotten a chance to work with such a great group of people. Even the pharmacist went out of his way to find out about our pharmacy club at UC Davis and told me his ideas about what he thinks I should do to get into pharmacy school. He talked with me a lot about my plans and how I plan on obtaining them. This really helped me because I haven’t really talked to many people about this before and it was very touching to know that someone cares enough to give me ideas into following the right path. I would definitely recommend this internship to anyone going into pharmacy as one of the best learning experiences you’ll obtain. I can also say that after working here anyone can say whether they still want to go into pharmacy in the future or not, for anyone who is confused and looking to get an idea if its something they are interested in. I now know that I definitely want to go into pharmacy and working here was what helped me come to this decision. I plan on definitely keeping in touch with the pharmacist and maybe even applying for a part time job there, as well as getting advice from the pharmacist about my future plans in becoming a pharmacist.



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Midsummer Night's Dream response

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Love in Shakespeare’s “Midsummer Night’s Dream” is represented in so many different ways. The two characters who most intrigue me with their representations of love are Lysander and Helena. I think that these characters point out a few, sometimes true, social stereotypes. These are points that are necessary to the story, but perhaps Shakespeare was trying to fit in his observations in society.

Lysander is a fickle character. It is portrayed as no fault of his own that his love for Hermia wanders, but I think there is a bigger statement to be made. Whomever Lysander loves at the time, he loves over the top and ridiculously. He appears to want to go to the ends of the Earth for the woman. I’ve been in a relationship with a guy like this, and it gets very old very quickly. No one wants to be told over and over all these things, but the women in this play don’t seem to mind. I know that this is necessary to move the plot along, but it just seems over the top.

When Puck redirects Lysander’s love, it is immediately devoted to Helena. He fawns over her and carries on and she wants no part of it because he is to be married to Hermia. Could he not have simply fallen out of love with Hermia and been lusting after Helena? That is a more likely situation. He treats this love as his ultimate love though, due to the potion that Puck put on his eyes.

Helena also has her own set of problems. She seems to enjoy being put down and verbally abused. She is following Demetrius around and is determined to make him love her. Of course, his put downs only encourage her. This happens in society all the time, and the women in Helena’s place wish for a fairy or a Puck character to come along and make the man love them. I think this is part of the reason that the characters are fairies, because the things they do are things that people only wish they could do.

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I have also been in Helena’s place before. I was in a relationship with a guy who said only mean and hurtful things to me, and this eventually wore me down to the point where I started to believe him. Helena is sort of this way. Demetrius threatens to kill her or harm her and she doesn’t fight it at all. At least it’s going to be him, she thinks. These thoughts and actions seem so horrible to me looking in on them, but when you are there it is very hard to realize the things that are going on. All Helena sees is a man she loves who refuses to love her back. I think that is why we are appalled by her actions; if we were in her shoes it may not seem so extreme.

I think that Shakespeare made several statements in the course of this play about the way that males and females interact when they are in love. We dream of things getting better, and that results in the fairy world. Men are fickle, as are Lysander’s actions. And women sometimes ignore the verbal abuse that is obvious to everyone else around them, because they are in love with a man. These are statements that still work with our society today, and this is why the play still works. If these were actions that we couldn’t relate to at all, it would not be interesting to read. But because we have all been in the shoes of one character or another, we can identify with them.



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Tuesday, January 22, 2013

Martin Luther King's letter from birmingham jail

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Analytical Analysis of Martin Luther King’s

“Letter from Birmingham Jail”

As the father of modern civil rights movement, Dr. Martin Luther king, Jr., is recognized around the world as a symbol of freedom and peace. Born on January 15, 1, King was the son of an Atlanta pastor. King also received the Nobel Peace Prize in December of 164. He was arrested in Birmingham, Alabama for participating in a march for which no permit was issued by city officials. On April 16th of 16, an imprisoned Martin Luther King Jr. began to write a response to a letter that was published in a local newspaper from eight clergymen. These men scorned Dr. King’s protests calling them “ unwise and untimely.” Through his “Letter from Birmingham jail”, King expressed his ideas and reasons for his actions. Martin Luther King Jr.’s “Letter from Birmingham jail” conveyed a sense of tensions during the civil rights movement era. Martin Luther King used ethos, pathos and logos to express his ideas and thoughts in the letter.

King used ethos to strengthen his views in the letter. Ethos. Ethos is author’s reputation, credentials and trustworthiness in an argument. In the second paragraph, King mentioned that, “I have the honor of serving as president of Southern Christian Leadership conference…”(841). By mentioning that, he has established his credibility to a greater extent. Through the first ten paragraphs King uses history to set up his credibility. Through quoting Bible verses and stories, he is able to convey to the Clergymen that he is virtuous and holy man. King said, “So I am Compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my own home town. Like Paul, I must constantly respond to Macedonian call for aid”(841). While establishing his virtuous nature to the clergymen, he also demonstrates his wisdom. He does so by quoting from many historical figures such as Socrates, Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, as well as many other well-known leaders and reformers. He also shows a substantial knowledge of the laws. His core argument focuses on the justice, which is a God given right that he and his people were not receiving. This idea is supported through the use of court cases and historical situations that are relevant to his argument. This allows the clergymen to understand better from where King’s argument grows.

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Martin Luther King used pathos to persuade his readers. Pathos is a part of argument which touches the emotions of the reader. He sighted a personal incident which placed readers into an emotional roller coaster …when you suddenly find your tongue twisted and your speech stammered as you seek to explain to your six-year-old daughter why she cant go to the public amusement park ….and see tears welling up in her eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to colored children…(844). Child is considered a child no matter what color or race. Nobody wants to see a child cry. He also mentioned torments and tortures on blacks. He described cruel behaviors of police towards blacks in jails. He said that, “Hate-filled policemen curse, kick and even kill your black brother and sisters and vast majority of twenty million Negro brothers smothering in an airtight cage of poverty” (844). He continues to explain the cruel punishment and behaviors blacks receive and their reasons to demand change now. In the fourteenth paragraph, Martin Luther king explained described why Black’s life as, “…you spend night after night in your car because no motel will accept you. Day and night you are humiliated by nagging signs; when your first name is “nigger” and middle name is “boy”….(845). King tried to put his readers into the shoes of blacks and the discriminations received, by using “You”. He said that. for more then two centuries “Our forebears labored without wages; they made cotton …built the homes of their masters while suffering gross injustice and shameful humiliation-and yet they continued to thrive and develop. If the inexpressible cruelties of slavery could not stop us, the opposition we now face will surely fail”(85).

Martin Luther King uses logos to further strengthen his arguments. Logos is a logical appeal in an argument. Throughout the letter, King has established himself as well educated and well informed. He gave a very clear definition of “just and unjust” laws “Any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that degrades human personality is unjust. All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distort the soul and damages the personality.”(845). It gives a false sense of inferiority and superiority to the people in a society. King further argued ineffectiveness of bad laws by giving an analogy that, “ If law and justice fail, they become dangerously structured dam that blocks the flow of social progress” (847). The analogy asserts that Bad law and order is to progress as a dam is to water. He also gave example of Hitler. He said that “ Everything Hitler did was legal and everything Hungarian did in Hungary was illegal“ (846) . According to Hitler’s Germany, extermination of Jews was legal but unjust. He implied that segregation and discrimination against Blacks is legal but unjust. Martin Luther King strengthened his argument by logically clarifying a meaning of being an “extremist”. He referred Jesus, Paul, Martin Luther as extremists motivated by “love, truth and goodness”(850) , much like himself.

King allowed his reader to gain an insight into his views and opinions through this letter. He based his letter on ethos, pathos and logos to convey and explain his views. Civil rights movement was significant in his letter as he was trying to persuade and educate the clergymen about the injustice and harm done to Blacks. He provided an authoritative, an emotional and a logical based argument to explain his actions and views.





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Plato's Republic vs. 1984

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Philosophy could be defined as the highest level of true clarity and understanding human thought can aspire to. It would thus seem strange to compare the ideal philosophical kingdom of Plato’s Republic with George Orwell’s 184. Plato’s writings form the cornerstone of Western philosophy, while Orwell’s text tells of a totalitarian society where all free thought is stifled. However, the two men’s versions of government, one utopian, the other horrific, spanning centuries of time, contain certain connections that will be elucidated over the course of this paper.

Both writers focus on a society in which repression is one of the main functions of government. Plato views this repression in a positive fashion, Orwell in a negative fashion. Plato and Orwell both illustrate a society in which power is held by a few, by individuals deemed to be superior, and a place where truth, rather than encouraged, is stifled for fear of the discord and the danger it will bring to society. The greater good Plato attempts to uphold through this oppression, however, is higher philosophical understanding in the mind of the human animal. In contrast, the focus of the repression detailed in Orwell’s society is that of protecting the security of the nation against others.

The repressive quality of Plato’s society is presented in an apparently reasonable fashion in the Second Book of the Republic. Plato, through the mouth of Socrates, suggests in an ideal society, all individuals should be relegated to doing what they are best at doing. Well, we forbade our shoemaker to try his hand at farming or weaving or building and told him to stick to his last, in order that our shoemaking should be well done. (..75.b-c, p.14) Those who are best at a certain occupation ought to be the only ones who do that occupation. This apparently reasonable justification, however, is really being used as a defense that those who are best at something, such as governing, ought to be the only ones who rule. Thus democracy is bad because it allows all to have a voice in the state’s future, as opposed to merely those who are deemed most fit to govern. Democracy, in Plato’s view is a bit like having individuals who are shoemakers herd sheep. Of course, in practice, this apparently reasonable prohibition results in the state prohibiting a shoemaker from herding sheep if that shoemaker wishes to try his hand at a different occupation, of making a different personal choice. It also begs the question�who is to chose those who are best at governing? Who decides who is the best at making a decision for all?

Plato creates a division in humanity. He suggests there is an elite group of individuals, known as the Guardians, who will serve as the protectors and governors of this new, perfect world he is attempting to create. [T]here are natures which combine the qualities we thought incompatible…In different kinds of animal, but particularly in the watch-dog to which we have compared our Guardian. For you must have noticed that it is a natural characteristic of a well-bred dog to heave with the utmost gentleness to those it is used to and knows, but to be savage to strangers?’ (.75.e, p.17) These Guardians will be selected because of their unique, superior natures (savage and intelligent, yet gentle at times) and raised as an elite.

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In Book Three, Plato continues, explaining the education these rulers will receive. Then it seems that our first business is to supervise the production of stories, and choose only those we think suitable, and reject the rest. We shall persuade mothers and nurses to tell our chosen stories to their children, and by means of them to mould their minds and characters which are more important than their bodies. The greater part of the stories current today we shall have to reject. (.77.e., p.11)

This division of society into classes is reminiscent of 184’s division between the highly controlled upper classes, of whom the protagonist Winston is a member of, and the ‘proles’ or lower classes, whom are largely uncontrolled in terms of their thoughts, except through state-sanctioned ignorance. It was only an ‘opeless fancy, /It passed like an Ipril dye, /But a look an’a word an’ the dreams they/They ‘ave stolen my ‘eart awye! This driveling song reflects Winston and Julia, had outlived the ‘Hate Song’ created by the elite powers to perpetuate their regime. (180) If there was hope, it lay in the proles! Winston thinks this because unlike the culture of the children of his own class, the culture of the proles has been allowed to remain relatively intact. (181)

The class divisions in the society of 184, like the class divisions of Plato’s Republic in theory, are based on merit rather than upon birth. This ‘merit’ is determined by examination, taken at the age of sixteen, much as Plato’s Guardian class is determined by recognition by adults of the current the governing classes. (17) Yet the governing class is still an oligarchy. A ruling group is a ruling group so long as it can nominate its successors. The Party is not concerned with perpetuating its blood but with perpetuating itself. (17) It is concerned with perpetuating the ideology that allows it to remain in power. The pervasiveness of this ideology in the minds of the elite rulers is evidenced in the fact that Julia, Winston’s younger lover, although she harbors seditious thoughts, still has little sense of the division between fact and fiction. She has known nothing else than the state-sanctioned lies of her culture. She believed, for instance, having learnt it at school, that the Party had invented airplanes. (17) This is evidence of the power, acknowledged by Plato, of what can occur when the state or some outside, governing entity has power over the stories told to children when they are very young. This power is even more sinister and more blatantly in evidence in 184 by the spectacle of children gleefully informing upon their parents and neighbors. The child’s loyalty is not to blood or love, but to the state and to their class and status in the hierarchy

The society of 184 is utterly dependent upon lies. The state continually feeds its citizens different versions of the truth, of who is an ally and who is an enemy, of how the war is going, and expects its ignorant and fearful citizenry to swallow these constantly differing truths as whole. Even language is a lie. The populace must accept that the Ministry of Truth solely created to alter information for propagandistic consumption is always right, even when it changes its story from day to day. In the world of 184 even language is a lie. The contradiction that Ignorance is Strength and that War is Peace is accepted because that is what is disseminated throughout the society�if the lie is large enough, people believe it. The inner self of belief is controlled, the inner self that is of such concern for Plato in Book Five of the Republic, through the outer policing of action. In part five of Book Four, Plato even states Our whole object was to steep them in the spirit of our laws like a dye. (4.40.a, p.00)

Plato claims that the purpose of his Republic shall be truth. Children shall be told monitored myths, carefully edited so that no fantastic acts of the gods, for instance, are passed on to the next generation. we must forbid anyone who writes a plat about the sufferings of Niobe…to say they are acts of god, (.80.a, p.15) Yet as is evident from his policing of the expression of individuals, his society would be dependent upon censorship to function. The individual’s expression, even to the individual’s own children, would be so controlled that freedom of thought and speech would be impossible. Truth was not the objective of the society delineated in 184, but the determination of truth in Plato’s Republic is formed by such a narrow oligarchy that it would seem free debate would be an impossibility, deemed a luxury only for the individuals in control of the society. And for those individuals to maintain their control, it would be in their interests to keep society and even perhaps their own philosophical within quite narrow terms, for that society to continue to function intact.

At the end of 184, it is revealed that even those leading the repressive regime know the absurdity of what they do, yet continue to maintain the lies because they believe lies are necessary for society to function. Human life is misery, yet O’Brien’s insistence that four is five is considered a necessary misery for the world to continue. Plato seeks truth yet the limits he creates for a society designed to protect and disseminate philosophical truth seem so frighteningly limited that four becoming five seems like the inevitable outcome of the restrictions he imposes.



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